In the past, the notion of security was primarily conceived in terms of neutralizing military threats to the territorial integrity and political independence of a state. However, in recent decades, it has been considerably broadened through incorporation of non- conventional threats and factors promoting tension and conlicts.
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This report considers the role and impact of environmental factors in securing hu- man safety and sustained development of the eastern Caspian Sea region, including the parts of Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan opening onto the Caspian Sea. Furthermore, the analysis presented here introduces a security perspective as it seeks to identify those environmental, socio-economic and political issues that are profoundly affecting the livelihoods of the populations and could lead to social tensions and instability.