C. DIGITAL DATA-SETS


C1. FOREST-VEGETATION REGIONALISATION

ARC/Info coverage name: KURNAEV

Geographic coverage: USSR

Scale: 1:16,000,000

Projection: Conical equidistant (main parallels 52o57'52"N and 63o56'42"N)

Date of publication: 1990; digitised in 1995

General content and compilation method: The map shows 20 zones (mostly latitudinal orientation) defined on the basis of dominant vegetation. Some zones are further divided into up to 3 sub-zones. Map digitised with A3-size KD-5000 and Calcomp digitisers using EPPL7 software, and then converted into ARC/Info format. To create topology, the dangle tolerance 800 m and fuzzy tolerance 200 m were used. The reported RMS error was below 0.4 mm. The difference in the coastline, borders and hydrography between this map and the DCW is reported to be within 10 km (with average 4-6 km); deviations in hydrography are systematic.

Principal sources: The map is an inset to the Forests of the USSR map, 1:2,500,000, Moscow (see A15). Existing maps of vegetation, forests and physico-geographical regionalisation of the USSR were used for the source compilation. Coastline and border digitised from 1:4,000,000 base-map of the USSR.

Legend and classification system: the digital legend contains 2 subject fields (see Appendix 3) as follows:
ZONEForest-vegetation zone
SUBZONEForest-vegetation sub-zone

Compiled by: Source map compiled by Research and Surveying Institute 'SoyuzGiproLesKhoz' of the USSR State Committee for Forests. Edited by. A.S. Isaev. Thematic information by S.F. Kurnaev. Digitised at the Centre for Agroecological Problems, V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture.

Copyright: Directorate-General for Geodesy and Cartography, USSR Council of Ministers (source); V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture


C2. STRUCTURE OF SOIL COVER

ARC/Info coverage name: SPP

Geographic coverage: Russia

Scale: 1:15,000,000

Projection: Conical equidistant (main parallels 52o57'52"N and 63o56'42"N)

Date of publication: 1987; digitised in 1995

General content and compilation method: The map contains information on the categories of soil cover spatial structure. The source map is digitised with A3-size KD-5000 and Calcomp digitisers using EPPL7 software, and then converted into ARC/Info format. To create topology, the dangle tolerance 800 m and fuzzy tolerance 200 m were used. The reported RMS error was below 0.4 mm. The difference in the coastline, borders and hydrography between this map and the DCW is reported to be within 10 km (with average 4-6 km); deviations in hydrography are systematic.

Principal sources: Agricultural Usage and the Structure of Soil Cover, an inset to the 1:2,500,000 soil map, Moscow, 1987. Coastline and border digitised from 1:4,000,000 base-map of the USSR.

Legend and classification system: the legend (see Appendix 3) contains the following subject fields:
TYPEGeneral type of soil cover spatial structure
STRUCTClass of soil cover spatial structure

Compiled by: Source thematic information by N.N. Rozov, V.M. Fridland, E.N. Rudneva (V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, USSR Academy of Agriculture); digitised at the Centre for Agroecological Problems, V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture.

Copyright: Directorate-General for Geodesy and Cartography, USSR Council of Ministers (source); V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture


C3. SOIL-ECOLOGICAL REGIONALISATION

ARC/Info coverage name: SER

Geographic coverage: Russia

Scale: 1:15,000,000

Projection: Conical equidistant (main parallels 52o57'52"N and 63o56'42"N)

Date of publication: 1987; digitised in 1995

General content and compilation method: The map presents the soil regionalisation of the USSR into 67 classes. In addition it contains quantitative information on multi-year average atmospheric (climatic) parameters and the parameters of thermal and water regime of soils for each class. The map is digitised with A3-size KD-5000 and Calcomp digitisers using EPPL7 software, and then converted into ARC/Info format. To create topology, the dangle tolerance 800 m and fuzzy tolerance 200 m were used. The reported RMS error was below 0.4 mm. The difference in the coastline, borders and hydrography between this map and the DCW is reported to be within 10 km (with average 4-6 km); deviations in hydrography are systematic.

Principal sources: Soil-Ecological Regionalisation map, an inset to the 1:2,500,000 soil map, Moscow, 1987; Quantitative thematic data by N.A. Dimo and D.I. Shashko. Coastline and border digitised from 1:4,000,000 base-map of the USSR.

Legend and classification system: the legend (see Appendix 3) contains the following subject fields:

General Description:
ZONESoil-ecological zone name
PROVINCESoil-ecological province name

Atmospheric Parameters:
JULY_TMean July temperature (for mountain provinces -- lower limit)
JULY_T_MNon-empty only for mountain provinces. Upper limit of July temperature
SUM_T10Sum of to >10oC (for mountain provinces -- lower limit)
SUM_T10_MNon-empty only for mountain provinces. Upper limit of sum of to >10oC
LEN_T10Length of period with to >10oC. For mountains -- empty
LEN_T0Length of period with to > 0oC. For mountains -- empty
JAN_TMean January temperature
PRECIPAnnual precipitation. (for mountain provinces -- lower limit)
LNon-empty only for mountain provinces. Upper limit of annual precipitation.
K_HUM_FROLower limit of G.N. Vysotskiy-N.N. Ivanov humidity coefficient (if empty, then defined as "less than")
K_HUM_TOUpper limit of humidity coefficient
P_DRY_FROProbability of dry years -- lower limit. For mountains -- empty
P_DRY_TOProbability of dry years -- upper limit. For mountains -- empty

Soil Parameters:
SUM_T10_SSum of to >10oC in the soil at 20 cm depth. For mountains --empty
DEP_T10_SDepth of penetration of to >10oC into soil, cm
LEN_VEG_SLength of vegetational period in soil at depth 20 cm in months
SUM_TNEGSum of to < 0oC at depth 20 cm
DEP_TNEG_Depth of penetration of negative temperatures, cm
DEP_ISO_FDepth of isothermal layer, m, lower limit
DEP_ISO_TDepth of isothermal layer, m, upper limit
T_ISO_FRTemperature of isothermal layer, lower limit
T_ISO_TOTemperature of isothermal layer, upper limit
REGIMEType of soil water regime

Compiled by: Source map by N.N. Rozov, V.A. Nosin, E.N. Rudneva (V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, USSR Academy of Agriculture); digitised at the Centre for Agroecological Problems, V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture.

Copyright: Directorate-General for Geodesy and Cartography, USSR Council of Ministers (source); V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture


C4. SOIL-GEOGRAPHIC REGIONALISATION

ARC/Info coverage name: SGR, SGR2, SGR3

Geographic coverage: USSR

Scale: 1:8,000,000

Projection: Conical equidistant (main parallels 52o57'52"N and 63o56'42"N)

Date of publication: 1982; digitised in 1995

General content and compilation method: The map contains information on 325 soil-geographic provinces homogeneous in edaphic terms (factors of soil formation, soil properties and regime, potential agricultural utilisation), providing for each of them data on zonal soils (22 classes), type of terrain (26 classes) and the altitude (3 classes). The map is digitised with A3-size KD-5000 and Calcomp digitisers using EPPL7 software, and then converted into ARC/Info format. To create topology, the dangle tolerance 800 m and fuzzy tolerance 200 m were used. The reported RMS error was below 0.4 mm. The difference in the coastline, borders and hydrography between this map and the DCW is reported to be within 10 km (with average 4-6 km); deviations in hydrography are systematic.

Principal sources: Soil-Geographic Regionalisation map, based on published sources and archives. Coastline and border digitised from 1:4,000,000 base-map of the USSR.

Legend and classification system: The map is digitised in 3 layers (see also Appendix 3).

The 1-st layer (SGR) contains the following subject fields:
BELTClimatic belt name (defined by solar radiation and temperature)
CLIM_REGIOClimatic region (defined by humidity vs. continentality)
ZONESoil-geographic zone (defined by soil type). For mountain provinces -- list of typical soils
PHACIEPhacie -- indicates soil temperature regime. For mountain provinces contain only the words "Mountain province"
PROVINCESoil province (defined by humidity vs continentality)

The 2-nd layer (SGR2) contains the following subject fields:
SOILZonal soil types
RELIEFType of terrain

The 3-d layer (SGR3) contains the following subject field:
LEVELAltitude (Low plains -- below 200 meters, High plains -- above 200 meters, Mountains)

Compiled by: Source map by G.V. Dobrovolskiy, I.S. Urusevskaya, N.N. Rozov (Faculty of Soil Science, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University); digitised at the Centre for Agroecological Problems, V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture.

Copyright: Directorate-General for Geodesy and Cartography, USSR Council of Ministers (source); V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture


C5. VEGETATION OF THE USSR

ARC/Info coverage name: BAZIL

Geographic coverage: USSR

Scale: 1:8,000,000

Projection: Conical equidistant (main parallels 52o57'52"N and 63o56'42"N)

Date of publication: 1964, updated in 1990 (unpublished); digitised in 1995

General content and compilation method: The map contains descriptive information on vegetation formations and quantitative data on the resources of vegetation living biomass, mortmass, and primary production. The map is digitised with A3-size KD-5000 and Calcomp digitisers using EPPL7 software, and then converted into ARC/Info format. To create topology, the dangle tolerance 800 m and fuzzy tolerance 200 m were used. The reported RMS error was below 0.4 mm.

Principal sources: Vegetation of the USSR map (A.N. Lukicheva, ed. V.B. Sochava), Moscow, 1964; quantitative information by N.I. Bazilevich.

Legend and classification system: the legend (see Appendix 3) contains the following subject fields:
TYPEVegetation type
FORMATIONClass of formation
VEGETATIOVegetation description (with Latin species names)
PHYT_FROMLiving phytomass above surface. lower limit, t/ha
PHYT_TOLiving phytomass above surface. upper limit t/ha
PROD_FROMAnnual production, lower limit, t/ha/year
PROD_TOAnnual production, upper limit, t/ha/year
MORT_FROMMortmass, lower limit, t/ha
MORT_TOMortmass, upper limit, t/ha

If one of limits is empty, than resources or production were defined as "less than" or "greater than".

Compiled by: Source map by A.N. Lukicheva (ed. V.B. Sochava), N.I. Bazilevich; digitised at the Centre for Agroecological Problems, V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture.

Copyright: Directorate-General for Geodesy and Cartography, USSR Council of Ministers; N.I. Bazilevich (source); V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture


C6. SOILS OF RUSSIA AND ADJACENT COUNTRIES

ARC/Info coverage name: SOIL

Geographic coverage: USSR

Scale: 1:4,000,000

Projection: Conical equidistant (main parallels 50o02'23"N and 67o18'23"N)

Date of publication: 1995 (compiled in 1993); digitised in 1995

General content and compilation method: The map contains soil information, providing for each polygon the data on primary soils (158 classes, and 3 more classes for complexes, hard rocks and glaciers), satellite (secondary) soils, underlying rocks (10 classes), altitudinal differentiation for mountain soils (3 classes), and the presence of stones (debris) in the soil (see also A12). The map is partly digitised with A3-size KD-5000 and Calcomp digitisers using EPPL7 software and partly scanned (with resolution 500 dpi), and then converted into ARC/Info format. To create topology, the dangle tolerance 800 m and fuzzy tolerance 200 m were used.

Principal sources: Soils of Russia and Adjacent Countries map (see A12).

Legend and classification system: Due to long descriptive text of most items, informational fields in the SOIL.PAT contain numeric codes, and the description of these codes is provided in separate files (see Appendix 3). Information about satellite soil is also provided in separate file, since most polygons have no satellite soils while some polygons have several of them.

The following items are included into the SOIL.PAT table:
POLYGONUnique polygon ID. Used to link satellite soil information.
SOILCode of primary soil (for polygons without soil cover, such as inland water and bare rocks, this field contains code which identifies type of non-soil cover). Explanation of codes is in the INFO file SOIL.SOILNAME.
PARENTCode of parent/underlying rock (0 for non-soil and organic soil). Description of the codes is in the INFO file SOIL.ROCKS
DIFFERCode of altitude differentiation (0 if no differentiation). Description is in the INFO file SOIL.DIFFER.
STONESLogical field, indicates presence of stones.


The table SOIL.SATELLIT describes satellite soils. It contain two items:
POLYGONPolygon code, same as in POLYGON field in the SOIL.PAT.
SOILSoil code. Refer to the file SOIL.SOILNAME for explanation.

Publications: Glazovskaya M.A., Gavrilova I.P., Gerasimova M.I., Kulbatskaya I.Yu. Geograficheskie Printsipy... (Geographical principles of soil mapping for the USSR and the world.) In: Novye Karty dlya Vysshey Shkoly... (New maps for higher schools: system geographical mapping of the USSR and the world.) Ed. by K.A. Salishchev. M: Moscow State University. 1987. 202 p. (in Russian)

Compiled by: Source map by the Research Laboratory of Complex Mapping and Atlases of the Faculty of Geography, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University. Special content is elaborated by a group of specialists of the Department of Landscape Geochemistry and Soil Geography of the Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University (I.P. Gavrilova, M.I. Gerasimova, M.D. Bogdanova, N.P. Lebedev). Scientific advisor -- M.A. Glazovskaya Editor-in-Chief I.Yu. Kulbatskaya. Digitised at the Centre for Agroecological Problems, V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture.

Copyright: Federal Agency of Russia for Geodesy and Cartography; group of authors from the Faculty of Geography, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (source); V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture


C7. VEGETATION OF THE USSR

ARC/Info coverage name: VEGET

Geographic coverage: USSR

Scale: 1:4,000,000

Projection: Conical equidistant (main parallels 52o57'52"N and 63o56'42"N)

Date of publication: 1989; digitised in 1995

General content and compilation method: The map contains information on vegetation at the several levels of geobotanical classification (see also A13). The source map is digitised with A3-size KD-5000 and Calcomp digitisers using EPPL7 software, and then converted into ARC/Info format. To create topology, the dangle tolerance 800 m and fuzzy tolerance 200 m were used. The reported RMS error was below 0.4 mm. Special manual processing has been undertaken to improve the match of the map with the DCW in terms of the coastline, political boundaries and the hydrography.

Principal sources: vegetation of the USSR map, Moscow, 1989 (see A13).

Legend and classification system: the legend (see Appendix 3; see also A13 in Appendix 2) contains the following subject fields:
ZONEVegetation zone name
SUBZONESub-zone name
TYPEVegetation type
SUBTYPEVegetation subtype
VEGETATIONVegetation formation (with Latin species names)

Publications: Poyasnitel'naya Zapiska i Legenda... (An explanatory note and the legend of the map "Vegetation of the USSR" for higher schools.). Moscow. 1990 (in Russian)

Compiled by: Source map by a group of leading specialists in botanical geography (A.V. Belov, I.I. Buks, S.A. Gribova T.I. Isachenko, N.M. Kalibernova, Z.V. Karamysheva, G.D. Katenina, G.M. Ladygina, V.V. Lipatova, N.P. Litvinova, N.I. Nikolskaya, E.I. Rachkovskaya, I.N. Safronova, V.N. Khramtzov, T.K. Yurkovskaya I.S. Ilyina, Yu.S. Prozorov) form the Laboratory of Vegetation Geography and Mapping (Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences), the Laboratory of Biogeography (Institute of Geography, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences), Research Institute of Geography (Leningrad State University), the Research Laboratory of Complex Mapping and Atlases (Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University). Edited by A.V. Belov, S.A. Gribova, Z.V. Karamysheva, T.V. Kotova. Digitised at the Centre for Agroecological Problems, V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture.

Copyright: Directorate-General for Geodesy and Cartography, USSR Council of Ministers (source); V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture


C8. LAND USE MAP OF THE WORLD

ARC/Info coverage name: POLARUSE

Geographic coverage: Circumpolar Arctic

Scale: 1:15,000,000

Projection: geographic co-ordinates

Date of publication: 1986 and 1990 (compiled in 1985); date of digitising unknown.

General content and compilation method: The map presents the distribution of land uses of the world such as arable lands, perennial crops, pastures, forests and woodlands, as well as their territorial combinations (see also A19). Digitising process unknown. Additional processing has been done at UNEP/GRID-Arendal. This included limiting the extent of the map to areas North of 50oN, and creating the English descriptive legend. During processing several problems have been found, such as small unattributed polygons and polygons with undefined attributes (coded with the 999 index), or several-to-one match of digital to paper-map class indices.

Principal sources: Land Use Map of the World (see A19).

Legend and classification system: the legend contains the following subject fields:
LUSECode of a land-use class
SCRIPTSuperscript of a land-use class
ECODEIntegrated code (with superscript) of a land use class

The description of the land-uses (see A19 in Appendix 2) is contained in the INFO file LUSE.LUT which can be related to the coverage via the ECODE field.

Publications: Narskikh R.S., Ozerova G.N., Yanvareva L.F. Karta Zemel'nykh Ugodiy... (World map of land use types for higher schools.) In: Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta. Ser. Geol.-Geogr, 1982 (1): 97-99 (in Russian); Yanvareva L.F. Sistemnoye Kartografirovaniye... (System mapping of agriculture for the USSR territory and the world as a whole.) In: Novye Karty dlya Vysshey Shkoly... (New maps for higher schools: system geographical mapping of the USSR and the world.) Moscow: Moscow State University. 1987 (in Russian)

Compiled by: Source map by the Research Laboratory of Complex Mapping and Atlases of the Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, with the assistance of specialists from other organisations (Institute of Geography of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Leningrad State University, Research Institute of Geodesy and Cartography). Editor-in-Chief L.F. Yanvareva. Place of digitising (in Russia) unknown. Received from UNEP/GRID-Nairobi. Processed by UNEP/GRID-Arendal (D. Henry, N.B. Denisov).

Copyright: M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)


C9. NATURAL-AGRICULTURAL REGIONALISATION OF LAND RESOURCES OF THE USSR

ARC/Info coverage name: NAR

Geographic coverage: USSR

Scale: 1:8,000,000

Projection: Conical equidistant (main parallels 52o57'52"N and 63o56'42"N)

Date of publication: 1984; digitised in 1995

General content and compilation method: The digitised map contains 80 polygons (provinces and sub-provinces), of which 14 units are located above 60oN. For each polygon a set of data (primarily on the climate) is provided. The source map is digitised with A3-size KD-5000 and Calcomp digitisers using EPPL7 software, and then converted into ARC/Info format. To create topology, the dangle tolerance 800 m and fuzzy tolerance 200 m were used. The reported RMS error was below 0.4 mm. The difference in the coastline, borders and hydrography between this map and the DCW is reported to be within 10 km (with average 4-6 km); deviations in hydrography are systematic.

Principal sources: Natural-Agricultural Regionalisation of Land Resources of the USSR map. Coastline and border digitised from 1:4,000,000 base-map of the USSR.

Legend and classification system: the legend (see Appendix 3) contains the following subject fields:
CODEIndex of province/sub-province
ZONENatural-agricultural zone
PROVINCENatural-agricultural province
SUBPROVINCNatural-agricultural sub-province (may be empty, if a current map unit is province)
KKN.N. Ivanov coefficient of climate continentality
ST_FROMSum of air temperatures above 10 oC, lower limit
ST_TOSum of air temperatures above 10 oC, upper limit
KY_FROMAnnual humidity coefficient (ratio of precipitation to evaporation), lower limit
KY_TOAnnual humidity coefficient (ratio of precipitation to evaporation), upper limit
BKClimatic index of bioproductivity (in grades, compared with mean productivity)

Compiled by: Thematic information of the source map by D.I. Shashko, S.I. Nosov, P.F. Loyko, Yu.V. Fedorin, O.K. Zamkov, B.P. Sotnikov, N.P. Bondarchuk, Yu.A. Gazizov, M.I. Glushkova, V.M. Zhukov, F.N. Kamenetzekaya, V.N. Kolosovskaya, N.D. Pokrovskaya, E.M. Yampolskaya, V.I. Abrosimova, Z.G. Aristova, E.I. Gaydamaka, T.A. Friev, A.N. Kashtanov, N.N. Rozov, N.N. Vadkovskaya, G.V. Dobrovolsky, I.S. Urusevskaya (State Research Institute of Land Resources of the USSR Ministry of Agriculture, V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute of the USSR Academy of Agriculture, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University). Edited by F.N. Kamenetzkaya. Digitised at the Centre for Agroecological Problems, V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture.

Copyright: Directorate-General for Geodesy and Cartography, USSR Council of Ministers (source); V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture


C10. AGRICULTURAL REGIONALISATION OF THE USSR

ARC/Info coverage name: AGROREG

Geographic coverage: USSR

Scale: 1:4,000,000

Projection: Conical equidistant (main parallels 50o10'29"N and 67o12'48"N)

Date of publication: 1989 (compiled in 1985); digitised in 1995

General content and compilation method: The map shows the distribution of the types of agricultural regions. Current forms of agriculture are represented as complex polystructural territorial systems of different hierarchical levels (see also A21). The map is digitised with A3-size KD-5000 and Calcomp digitisers using EPPL7 software, and then converted into ARC/Info format. To create topology, the dangle tolerance 800 m and fuzzy tolerance 200 m were used. The reported RMS error was below 0.4 mm.

Principal sources: Agricultural Regionalisation of the USSR map (see A21).

Legend and classification system: Legend for this map is supplied in the text file (AGROREG.DOC) and not in informational fields of the AGROREG.PAT, because map unit descriptions are too long to fit in the dBase string field. Each map unit in this text file is described in a separate paragraph marked by a decimal number at the start of a line. Roman numbers are the original numbers of agricultural zones. There are two layers of information: zone (two highest digits in user_ID) and land-use type (two lowest digits within zone). Several zones have descriptions that apply to all types within zone. They are placed in the text file in front of the types' descriptions for each zone and marked only by Roman numbers. See A21 in Appendix 2.

Publications: Selskokhozyaystvennoye Rayonirovaniye SSSR. (Agricultural Regions of the USSR.) Explanatory note for the map. Moscow. 1989 (in Russian)

Compiled by: Source map by the Research Laboratory of Complex Mapping and Atlases of the Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University. Special content elaborated by a large group of authors from different research institutions. Edited by A.N. Rakitnikov Editor-in-Chief L.F. Yanvareva.

Copyright: Directorate-General for Geodesy and Cartography, USSR Council of Ministers (source); V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Russian Academy of Agriculture


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