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Wood exports from Congo Basin Wood exports from Congo Basin
China is probably the largest importer of wood products of illegal origin. Other primary importers of illegal logs or wood products are Japan, the EU, and the US.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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Annual Value of Illegal Logging Annual Value of Illegal Logging
The official value of the global wood trade has been estimated at around US $327 billion dollars (FAO, 2007; UNEP 2009). If illegal logging consists of as much as 10-30 per cent of the total logging worldwide, with some estimates as highg as 20-50 per cent when the laundering of illegal wood is included, then the value of it is at least US $30-100 billion (NCB-Rome 2008; INTERPOL/World Bank 2009).
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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Illegal Timber from the Congo Illegal Timber from the Congo
Political economic networks often provide forceful drivers for small-scale illegal logging and timber trade. Many of these networks bring together not only powerful actors from the private sector but als government officials, including the very officials responsible for enforcing logging bans, harvest regulations, and restrictions on timber trade.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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Illegal Logging and Log Laundering Illegal Logging and Log Laundering
A key element in illegal logging schemes is the laundering of the illegal timber and other wood products. This is the primary way that illegal logs are transported, processed and exported or manufactured, thereby bypassing the majority of certification schemes and efforts to avoid illegal imports.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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By-passing flow of investment to illegal logging By-passing flow of investment to illegal logging
The Norwegian sovereign wealth fund is an example of a governance mechanism employed in an attempt to limit investment in companies involved in illegal logging.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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Black wood dependency Black wood dependency
China is probably the largest importer of wood products with illegal origin. Other primary importers of illegal logs or wood products are Japan, the EU and the US.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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Ten ways to conduct illegal logging Ten ways to conduct illegal logging
Illegal logging takes place in many forms, from illegal logging in protected areas or large-scale illegal logging without permits in remote areas, conflict zones and border areas, to adavanced laundering operations mixing legal with illegal logs through bribery, re-definition of forest classification, forged permits, exceeding legal concessions and clearing or laundering through plantations, biofuel production and ranching establishments.
04 Oct 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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Causes of illegal logging Causes of illegal logging
There are many different causes of illegal logging. This model illustrates the causes of illegal logging in Indonesia.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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Illegal Logging and the Congo Conflict Illegal Logging and the Congo Conflict
Illegal logging directly fuels many conflicts as timber is a resource available for conflict profiteers or to finance arms sales. Without public order, militants, guerillas or military units impose taxes on logging companies or charcoal producers, issue false export permits and control border points. They frequently demand the removal of all vehicle check points and public patrolling of resource-rich areas as part of the peace conditions followin...
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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Illegal charcoal trade Illegal charcoal trade
Many protected areas are home to an abundance of rare wood species in high demand for panels, floors and furniture. They may also hold some of the last remaining concentrations of high density wood for charcoal.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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Illegal logging bottlenecks Illegal logging bottlenecks
Illegal timber has to be aggregated and funnelled by road or river transport to a limited number of destinations domestically or for export, which creates a bottleneck in the illegal trade.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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Environmental trends Nordic countries (slide 4) Environmental trends Nordic countries (slide 4)
The graph shows environmental trends in Nordic countries part 4. It illustrates positive and negative development in Nordic countries within areas such as timber resources and agricultural land resources.
13 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Main Flow of Illegally Logged Timber to Europe Main Flow of Illegally Logged Timber to Europe
No data
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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Historical Forest Carbon Balance 1855-1995 Historical Forest Carbon Balance 1855-1995
Through processes of respiration and through the decay of organic matter or burning of biomass, forests release carbon. A carbon ‘sink’ is formed in the forest when the uptake of carbon is higher than the release. The conversion of forested to nonforested areas in developing countries has had a significant impact on the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the tmosphere, as has forest degradation caused by over-exploitation of forests for timber ...
01 Oct 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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Solid Biomass Consumption Including Woodfuel Solid Biomass Consumption Including Woodfuel
Fuelwood and charcoal from forests have long provided energy for heating, cooking and industry. Almost 90 per cent of the wood harvested in Africa, and 40 per cent in Asia and the Pacific, is used for fuel (FAO 2006a). Wood pellets, typically produced in North America and Europe from sawdust and other timber by-products, are increasingly used in stoves, boilers and power stations (Peksa-Blanchard et al. 2007)
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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Energy cost of various construction materials Energy cost of various construction materials
Energy cost of building material range from 1 to 2800. Energy consumed measured in kilowatt hour per cubic metre for stone, sawn timber, concrete, brick, cement, PVC, steel and aluminum.
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Paper and paperboard production Paper and paperboard production
Though it is based on wood, a natural renewable resource, the pulp and paper industry is one of the worst sources of pollution. It absorbs more than 40 per cent of all timber felled worldwide. Despite the development of digital communications tools global paper production is expected to increase by 2.2 per cent a year from 330 million tonnes at present to 440 million tonnes worldwide by 2015. The main growth areas are Asia and Eastern Europe, but...
07 Nov 2006 - by Cécile Marin
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Transportation projects converging on the Caspian Sea Transportation projects converging on the Caspian Sea
For many years, coastal navigation has connected republics in the former Soviet Union. It used the only outlet from the Caspian, the Volga-Don canal, which connects the Black Sea and the Russian canal system to the Baltic. It is still used to transport raw materials, timber, coal, grain, fertilisers, etc.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Causual pathway of conflict over resources Causual pathway of conflict over resources
For violence to occur there should be someone able to extract economic profit from the situation. Access to specific natural resources is a factor that can motivate actors to use violence as means of control (diamonds, oil, timber wars) When looking at the process behind violence it is essential to identify players with an incentive for violence. They need to access resources that facilitate mobilization and expansion of violence. However, societ...
16 Mar 2006 - by Luigi de Martino and Viktor Novikov
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Forest systems Forest systems
Forest systems are lands dominated by trees; they are often used for timber, fuelwood, and non-wood forest products. The map shows areas with a canopy cover of at least 40% by woody plants taller than 5 meters.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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