Tag: Soil

Global soil degradation
In many parts of the world natural resources have been treated as though unlimited, and totally resilient to human exploitation. This perception has exacerbated the conflicting agricultural demands on natural capital, as...
03 Jan 2008 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global trends in cereal and meat production; total use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers; increased use of irrigation; total global pesticides production
Production gains are attributed to improved crop varieties and livestock, soil management, improved access to resources (nutrients and water), infrastructure developments, policy initiatives, microfinance, education, bet...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in permafrost temperatures in the central and northern Mackenzie Valley, 1984-2006
Temperature monitoring in Canada indicates a warming of shallow permafrost over the last two to three decades. Since the mid-1980s, shallow permafrost (upper 20-30 m) has generally warmed in the Mackenzie Valley. The gre...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in groundwater nitrate concentrations
The graph shows the development of Nitrate concentration in groundwater from 1980 to 1995 in France, Britain and Denmark combined. Nitrate is a naturally occurring compound and is normal in small amounts, but excess amou...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Exports of pharmaceutical plants from Central Europe compared to gross national income (GNI) per capita
The Balkans are one of the most competitive sources on the world market. However, stocks of many wild species have recently declined. Some species are now rare or endangered due to the loss of their natural habitat, exce...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Stephane Kluser, Matthias Beilstein, Ieva Rucevska, Cecile Marin, Otto Simonett
The Carbon Cycle
Carbon stocks in forest areas comprise carbon in living and dead organic matter both above and below ground including trees, the understorey, dead wood, litter and soil. On a global scale, vegetation and soils are e...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Forests Regulate Groundwater Level
Forests can regulate groundwater levels and increase drainage of soils where the water table is close to the surface. If there are salts in the upper soil layers, then removal of forests can result in raised groundw...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Carbon Stocks Trends and Projections Compared to 1860
Carbon stocks in forest areas comprise carbon in living and dead organic matter both above and below ground including trees, the understorey, dead wood, litter and soil. According to the latest projections, changes ...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Breakdown of Carbon Storage by Region
Forests absorb carbon through photosynthesis and sequester it as biomass, thus creating a natural storage of carbon. Carbon stocks in forest areas comprise carbon in living and dead organic matter both above and bel...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
The main Biomes of the World
Defining what constitutes a forest is not easy. Forest types differ widely, determined by factors including latitude, temperature, rainfall patterns, soil composition and human activity.
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
Different approaches and overlapping definitions to waste
Waste is generated in all sorts of ways. Its composition and volume largely depend on consumption patterns and the industrial and economic structures in place. Air quality, water and soil contamination, space consumption...
14 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Global sediment loads
Asia exhibits the largest runoff volumes and, therefore, the highest levels of sediment discharge. This graphic shows the amounts of suspended sediments discharged, in millions of tonnes per year, in the major regions of...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World's water cycle: schematic and residence time
The water cycle consists of precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration and runoff. This graphic explains the global water cycle, showing how nearly 577 000 km3 of water circulates through the cycle each year. A table...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Total global saltwater and freshwater estimates
Estimates of global water resources based on several different calculation methods have produced varied estimates. This graphic illustrates the proportions of saltwater and freshwater that make up the earth's water resou...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Tajikistan, topographic map
Tajikistan is located in Central Asia, west of China, comprising of 143,100 sq km. It has a population of 7,163,506 (2005). Major environmental concerns are: inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil sa...
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Hungary, topographic map
Hungary is located in Central Europe, northwest of Romania, comprising of 93,030 sq km. It has a population of 10,006,835 (2005). Major environmental concerns are: the upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management...
17 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Lithuania, topographic map
Lithuania is located in Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia, comprising of 65,200 sq km. It has a population of 3,596,617 (2005). Major environmental concerns are: contamination of soil an...
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Kyrgyz Republic, topographic map
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan) is located in Central Asia, west of China, comprising of 198,500 sq km. It has a population of 5,146,281 (2005). Major environmental concerns are: water pollution; many people get their w...
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Belarus, topographic map
Belarus is located in Eastern Europe, east of Poland, comprising of 207,600 sq km. It has a population of 10,300,483 (2005). Major environmental concerns are: soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the count...
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change impact on mountain vegetation zones
The figure shows a comparison of current vegetation zones at a hypothetical dry temperate mountain site with simulated vegetation zones under a climate-warming scenario. Mountains cover about 20% of the Earth's continent...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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