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Applicability of space technology to Arctic policy areas Applicability of space technology to Arctic policy areas
This figure maps the contribution that each type of space system (communications, weather and climate, navigation, earth observation, surveillance, and science) can make to each policy area (safety, environment, sustainable economic development, sovereignty, and indigenous and social development).
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Space Technologies and Policy Drivers Space Technologies and Policy Drivers
Space systems provide unique opportunities to meet the needs of northern stakeholders concerned with safety, the environment, sustainable economic development, sovereignty, and indigenous rights and social development.
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Research budgets of CGIAR, Monsanto and NARS in South America Research budgets of CGIAR, Monsanto and NARS in South America
Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) has the capacity to improve livelihoods, although effects have varied by region and social group. The ability to access and benefit from AKST is uneven, with industrialized countries gaining more than developing countries. Monsanto is by far the largest investor in agricultural research in South America.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Public and private agriculture research and development spending by region, 2000 Public and private agriculture research and development spending by region, 2000
Investments in agricultural research and development (R&D) are still growing, but the growth rate declined during the 1990s. In addition, investment trends among countries have increasingly diverged. Investment in publicly funded agricultural R&D in many industrialized countries has stalled or declined and has become a small proportion of total spending on science and technology (S&T).
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Key relationships between future challenges and agricultural knowledge, science and technology (AKST) options for action Key relationships between future challenges and agricultural knowledge, science and technology (AKST) options for action
The general model has been to continuously innovate, reduce farm gate prices and externalize costs. This model drove the phenomenal achievements of AKST in industrial countries after WWII and the spread of the Green Revolution beginning in the 1960s. But, given the new challenges we confront today, there is increasing recognition within formal S&T organizations that the current AKST model requires revision.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Back to the future: The science of building scenarios Back to the future: The science of building scenarios
Diagram showing four scenarios for the future each with different influences between market orientation and environmental, and regional and global. Then predictive charts show the scenarios in terms of emissions, concentrations and impacts of CO2 levels.
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Melting snow on Kilimanjaro Melting snow on Kilimanjaro
At the February 2001 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), researchers reported dramatic changes in the volume of ice capping the Kibo summit of Kilimanjaro.This graphic shows the estimated extent of the glacier on Mount Kilimanjaro in 1912, and the extent of the glaciers there in 2002. The graphic also shows the decline in the total area of the ice from 1900 to 2000, with projected data to the year 2020.
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Deforestation in Rondonia (Brazil) in the nineties Deforestation in Rondonia (Brazil) in the nineties
The graph shows deforestation in Rondonia, Brazil. Brazil covers more than one quarter of the worlds tropical forests. Since 1980 the deforestation has steadily increased. Deforestration can occur as a result of the clearing of large areas for agricultural purposes, commercial logging and the construction of towns or dams. Please be advised that this graphic is likely outdated.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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IPCC and UNFCCC - Institutional framework IPCC and UNFCCC - Institutional framework
In 1988, UNEP and WMO jointly established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as concern over changes in the climate became a political issue. The purpose of the IPCC was to assess the state of knowledge on the various aspects of climate change including science, environmental and socio-economic impacts and response strategies. The IPCC is recognized as the most authoritative scientific and technical voice on these issues, and it...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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IPCC structure IPCC structure
In 1988, UNEP and WMO jointly established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as concern over changes in the climate became a political issue. The purpose of the IPCC was to assess the state of knowledge on the various aspects of global change including science, environmental and socio-economic impacts and response strategies. The IPCC is recognized as the most authoritative scientific and technical voice on these issues, and its...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Share of packaging waste in total household waste (OECD) Share of packaging waste in total household waste (OECD)
Once a product is manufactured and ready to be sold, it must be distributed. To protect it from dirt and shocks, to make it easier to store, but also to make it look appealing, a whole science has developed to design the most suitable wrappings. The variety of products demands a huge diversity of packaging and a wide range of materials: cardboard boxes, glass jars, plastic bags, plastic film, aluminium wrappers and expanded polystyrene, to...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Percentage of women in labor force (total and agricultural) Percentage of women in labor force (total and agricultural)
Gender equity is an important part of social equity. Women and men, who often have different roles and responsibilities in households and food production, often have different relationships to the various benefits derived from Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) and innovations.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arenda
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Projected gains (losses) for countries under Doha scenario for agriculture Projected gains (losses) for countries under Doha scenario for agriculture
Agricultural trade offers opportunities for developing countries to benefit from larger scale production for global markets, acquire some commodities cheaper than would be possible through domestic production, and gain access to new forms of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) and equipment (e.g. fertilizers, HYV seeds, pump sets, etc.). Projections for the Doha round of trade negotitations show, though, that for the agricultura...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major research stations in Antarctica Major research stations in Antarctica
Antarctica is interesting for many types of researchers. For example, glaciologists study the ice and snow, while oceanographers look at the oceans. The ice, snow and oceans affect the global climate and are presently changing as a result of global warming. The many other types of researchers who work here include geologists (who study rocks), astronomers (who study outer space), and meteorologists (who study the weather). How do researchers stud...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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An increasing number of countries are leasing land abroad to sustain and secure their food production An increasing number of countries are leasing land abroad to sustain and secure their food production
The world regions are sharply divided in terms of their capacity to use science in promoting agricultural productivity in order to achieve food security and reduce poverty and hunger. For every US$100 of agricultural output, developed countries spend US$2.16 on public agricultural research and development (R&D), whereas developing countries spend only US$0.55 (IFPRI, 2008). Total agricultural R&D spending in developing countries increased ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and surface temperature projections Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and surface temperature projections
Climate change manifests itself primarily through a gradual increase in the average temperatures of the earth’s surface, alterations in precipitation patterns, changes in the intensity and/or frequency of extreme climatic events, a slow but significant reduction in the cryosphere (including glaciers) and a rise in sea levels. Available scientific evidence associates the phenomenon of climate change with increased concentrations of anthropogenic g...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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research_antarcticflag_nb research_antarcticflag_nb
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26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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research_greenland_nb research_greenland_nb
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26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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26 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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