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Fragmentation pf the Volga river over the last 60 years Fragmentation pf the Volga river over the last 60 years
The construction of several dams along spawning rivers (mainly the Volga River) significantly altered water flows and destroyed about 90 per cent of the sturgeon’s spawning grounds (UNEP/GRID-Arendal 2006).
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Freshwater availability per capita in Zambezi River Basin countries Freshwater availability per capita in Zambezi River Basin countries
The water flow in the Zambezi river is estimated at 3 600 cu m per second. This represents about 87 mm/year of equivalent rainfall and less than 10 per cent of the average rainfall in the basin (Shela 2000). The average annual rainfall in the basin is about 950 mm/year (Mitchell 2004), but is unevenly distributed across the basin. The southern and western parts of the basin receive less rainfall than the northern and eastern parts. The more den...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Urban Population in Zambezi River Basin States Urban Population in Zambezi River Basin States
Zambezi River Basin countries share similar settlement patterns characterized by both low and high densities. While the basin is largely rural, urbanization rates are high. In Botswana and Angola, urban population constitute more than 60 per cent (SADC and SARDC 2008), and is projected to exceed 80 per cent by 2050 (UNHABITAT 2010). At just more than 25 per cent (UN-HABITAT 2010), Malawi is the least urbanized country in the basin, and yet the mo...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River runoff Zambezi River runoff
A major impact of the construction of the Kariba and Cahora Bassa dams from 1950–1970 was the reduction in the Zambezi River runoff. Before the dam construction, the Zambezi River was torrential with high flows during the wet season from November to March and relatively low flows in the dry season from April to October. On average, the river discharged 60 to 80 per cent of its mean annual flow during wet season. Since the dams were built, the w...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Population distribution in the Zambezi River Basin Population distribution in the Zambezi River Basin
Population distribution is uneven in the basin, with large areas uninhabited and reserved for wildlife. In 1998, the average population density in the basin was 24 people per sq km, and this increased to 28.75 people per sq km in 2005 before reaching 30.26 people per sq km in 2008 (Chenje 2000; SARDC and HBS 2010). There are disparities in population densities between countries in the basin, with Malawi being the most densely populated country. I...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Popoulation density increasing, per capita land area shrinking in Zambezi River Basin Popoulation density increasing, per capita land area shrinking in Zambezi River Basin
The population of the Zambezi River Basin grew from 31.7 million in 1998 to 38.4 million in 2005, before reaching 40 million in 2008. It is projected that by 2025 the population will reach 51 million (Chenje 2000; SADC and ZRA 2007; SARDC and HBS 2010). Although sparsely populated, average population densities in the basin show a consistent shrinkage in per capita land availability, which is projected to decline to 2.56 hectares/ person in 2025 ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Forest cover in Zambezi basin countries Forest cover in Zambezi basin countries
Zambezi River Basin countries have been losing forests over the decades, and this loss continues unabated. Rates of forest loss per year in the last 20 years have been significant with Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Mozambique recording the highest losses of 403 350 hectares, 327 000 hectares and 217 800 hectares, respectively, while Malawi and Namibia recorded the smallest losses at 32 950 hectares and 73 600 hectares, respectively (FAO 2011). The main ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin flood areas Zambezi River Basin flood areas
Over the last two decades, the Zambezi River Basin has experienced extreme floods and droughts (SARDC and HBS 2010). Most of the flooding in the basin is associated with active cyclones that develop in the Indian Ocean. The IPCC predicted that tropical cyclones will become more intense, with higher peak wind speeds and heavier precipitation associated with increases in tropical sea surface temperature (IPCC 2009). Major floods were recorded in p...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Threatened Species in the Zambezi River Basin countries Threatened Species in the Zambezi River Basin countries
Despite the abundance of wildlife resources in the basin, there are pressures that threaten the existence of this resource. Species that have become extinct in the basin in recent times include the blue wildebeest in Malawi, the Tsetsebe in Mozambique, and the Kob in Tanzania (SADC and SARDC 2008). Others face a high risk of extinction, and the number of threatened species across the basin continues to rise. The White (Grass) rhinocerous, Black (...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin wetlands Zambezi River Basin wetlands
Wetlands cover a large area of the Zambezi River Basin. For example, in Zambia the Kafue Flats, Lukanga swamps, Barotse flood plains, Nyambomba swamps, Cuando, Busanga,Luangwa and Luena flats cover an area greater than 2.6 million hectares (SADC and ZRA 2007). These wetlands are used for fisheries, agriculture, wildlife management, and transportation services.  The variations in flooding in areas such as the Zambezi floodplains, East Caprivi ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin vegetation Zambezi River Basin vegetation
Land cover and land use have great impacts on water resources, as they affect how precipitation translates into runoff, infiltration, evaporation, and the quality of the water (Hirji et al. 2002). Almost 75 per cent of the land area in the basin is forest and bush. Cropped land with mostly rain-fed agriculture covers 13 per cent of the land area, and grassland covers about 8 per cent of the land area.
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin average temperature Zambezi River Basin average temperature
The temperature across the river basin varies according to elevation and, to a much lesser extent, latitude. Mean monthly temperatures for the coldest month, July, vary from below 13°C for higher elevation areas in the south of the basin to 23°C for low elevation areas in the delta in Mozambique. The coolest area is the south-eastern part of the basin, part of which is in Zambia and the other part is in Zimbabwe. Ground frost occurs locally in s...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin Zambezi River Basin
The Zambezi River Basin is located between 8–20° S latitude and 16.5–36° E longitude in southern Africa (Chenje 2000). It drains an area of almost 1.4 million square kilometres, stretching across 8 of the 15 member states of the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin average rainfall Zambezi River Basin average rainfall
Average annual rainfall across the river basin varies from 500mm in the extreme south and southwest part of the basin to more than 1 400 mm in the Upper Zambezi and Kabompo sub-basins, in the north-eastern shores of Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa in Tanzania, and in the southern border area between Malawi and Mozambique (Chenje 2000). Rainfall is greatest in the north, with an extensive area receiving over 1 000 mm, and declines towards the south, ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin hydropower facilities Zambezi River Basin hydropower facilities
The hydropower potential of the Zambezi River Basin is estimated at 20 000 megawatts (MW)of which about 5 000 MW has been developed (Tumbare 2004). More than half of this potential is in Mozambique, about one-quarter in Zambia and one-sixth in Zimbabwe (SADC and ZRA 2007). The Cahora Bassa, Kariba and Kafue Gorge dams provide the bulk of the basin’s hydropower, generating 2 075 MW, 1 470 MW and 990 MW of electricity, respectively (World Bank ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin share by country Zambezi River Basin share by country
The Zambezi River Basin has 13 sub-basins, most of which are transboundary. The largest portion of the basin lies in Zambia, with smaller segments in Angola, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Malawi in that order. Tanzania, Botswana and Namibia have less than three per cent of the basin each.
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Renewable water resources in Europe Renewable water resources in Europe
Water resources are a major political issure with most European countries a large portion of their fresh water supply orginating from other countries. Hungary has over 90 percent of its fresh water coming from river flows of other coutries.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Renewable water resources in Europe Renewable water resources in Europe
Water resources are a major political issure with most European countries a large portion of their fresh water supply orginating from other countries. Hungary has over 90 percent of its fresh water coming from river flows of other coutries.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Freshwater resources Freshwater resources
Access to water is perhaps one of the greatest challenges for sustainable development in Africa. This resource includes three graphics. The first shows the average annual freshwater withdrawal, in cubic metres per capita per year, at the national level for Africa. The second graphic shows the annual volume of water resources, in cubic kilometres, that each continent has, based on the average of figures from 1921 to 1985. The final graphic shows t...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Freshwater resources Freshwater resources
Access to water is perhaps one of the greatest challenges for sustainable development in Africa. This resource includes three graphics. The first shows the average annual freshwater withdrawal, in cubic metres per capita per year, at the national level for Africa. The second graphic shows the annual volume of water resources, in cubic kilometres, that each continent has, based on the average of figures from 1921 to 1985. The final graphic shows t...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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