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Tag: Marine environment

Plasticized animal species - Entangled
Entanglement in debris is a more obvious and proven risk to marine life than other impacts of litter, which are still subject to debate. More than 30,000 cases of entanglement (in 243 species) have been reported (G...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plasticized animal species - Ingestion
Apart from the physical risk from plastic, there is also concern that marine organisms are at risk from the ingestion of hazardous chemicals that are in the plastic or adsorbed on its surface. The ability of plastic part...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Marine plastic garbage clean up efforts
The costs of action will vary depending on where in the value chain and on what waste the measures are focused, which sectors and products they target, and the location and scale of the marine litter being addressed. Whi...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plastic bioaccumulation in the food web
Plastic debris can have similar size characteristics to sediment and suspended particulate matter and can be ingested by filter feeding or sediment ingesting organisms. Lugworms, amphipods and barnacles have all been s...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
How plastics enter the food web How plastics enter the food web
There has been widespread publicity about pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris and its impact on organisms. Images of the brightly coloured plastic stomach contents of dead seabirds and countless whale...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
How much plastic waste is produced worldwide
Today´s deterioration of the global environment is closely linked to unsustainable patterns of consumption and production. The exponential increase in production and consumption over the last 50 years has seen a rapid tr...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
How plastic moves from the economy to the environment
Marine plastic litter, like other waste or pollution problems, is really linked to market failure. In simple terms, the price of plastic products does not reflect the true cost of disposal. The cost of recycling an...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plastic waste produced and mismanaged
The rapid rise in the use of oil and gas during the last half century has been accompanied by the development of a range of petroleum products, some of which, like petrochemicals, have other important applications beyond...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Which plastics oat and which sink in seawater?
There has recently been a noticeable increase in concern about the implications of pollution by small sized debris, especially where made up of plastic. The term “microplastic” has been introduced to describe small plast...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Size does matter
Marine litter comes in all sizes. Large objects may be tens of metres in length, such as pieces of wrecked vessels, lost
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Mostly plastic
Between 60 and 90 per cent – sometimes as much as 100 per cent – of the litter that accumulates on shorelines, the sea surface and the sea floor is made up of one or a combination of different plastic polymers. The mos...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Sources of marine litter
Marine litter is “any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment” (Galgani et al. 2010). It reaches the marine environment through delib...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Seabed habitats in Western Mediterranean
The Mediterranean Basin has a wide array of habitats that include sea grass beds, intact rocky shorelines, persistent frontal systems, estuaries, underwater canyons, deepwater coral assemblages and sea mounts (UNEP/MA...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Fertilizer use and nitrogen release in the Mediterranean region
Agriculture is the largest non-point source of pollutants in the Mediterranean (UNEP/MAP 2011). Agriculture-related nutrients enter the sea through groundwater, lakes, wetlands, and rivers. Nitrogen consumption per su...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Sources of emissions of nutrients in the Mediterranean region, 2008
Nutrients in seawater present a paradox. Nutrients are, of course, essential for life. In the oligotrophic environment of the Mediterranean, the ecosystems with the most nutrients are generally the most productive and d...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Demersal destructive fishing in the Mediterranean Sea
Fishing is one of the major contributors to habitat damage in the Mediterranean Sea. Most of this damage comes from trawling operations. Since fishing is most intense in the Western Mediterranean, it is not surprising t...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Blue flags up!
Marine environments are key assets of global tourism, and their preservation is ultimately a precondition for the survival of marine and coastal tourism.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen export by rivers for world regions
The figure shows the amounts of nitrogen exported by rivers per year and provides a forecast for the future.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Unbalancing the cycle
The figure compares the flow of nitrogen between the the years 1890 and 1990.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Dead zones and fertilizers
The production and use of reactive nitrogen based artificial fertilizers has had huge global benefits providing food for billions through the green revolution. The down side of the increased availability of cheap manufac...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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