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Tag: Marine environment

Sources of marine litter
Marine litter is “any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment” (Galgani et al. 2010). It reaches the marine environment through delib...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Seabed habitats in Western Mediterranean
The Mediterranean Basin has a wide array of habitats that include sea grass beds, intact rocky shorelines, persistent frontal systems, estuaries, underwater canyons, deepwater coral assemblages and sea mounts (UNEP/MA...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Fertilizer use and nitrogen release in the Mediterranean region
Agriculture is the largest non-point source of pollutants in the Mediterranean (UNEP/MAP 2011). Agriculture-related nutrients enter the sea through groundwater, lakes, wetlands, and rivers. Nitrogen consumption per su...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Sources of emissions of nutrients in the Mediterranean region, 2008
Nutrients in seawater present a paradox. Nutrients are, of course, essential for life. In the oligotrophic environment of the Mediterranean, the ecosystems with the most nutrients are generally the most productive and d...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Demersal destructive fishing in the Mediterranean Sea
Fishing is one of the major contributors to habitat damage in the Mediterranean Sea. Most of this damage comes from trawling operations. Since fishing is most intense in the Western Mediterranean, it is not surprising t...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Blue flags up!
Marine environments are key assets of global tourism, and their preservation is ultimately a precondition for the survival of marine and coastal tourism.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen export by rivers for world regions
The figure shows the amounts of nitrogen exported by rivers per year and provides a forecast for the future.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Unbalancing the cycle
The figure compares the flow of nitrogen between the the years 1890 and 1990.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Dead zones and fertilizers
The production and use of reactive nitrogen based artificial fertilizers has had huge global benefits providing food for billions through the green revolution. The down side of the increased availability of cheap manufac...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Production of nitrogen
The rapid increase in the production of reactive nitrogen via the Haber-Bosch process correlates closely with the increase in world population from about 2.6 billion in 1950 to over 6 billion in 2000 (figure page 78). B...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
World cargo shipping lanes
The international shipping industry is responsible for the carriage of about 90 per cent of world trade by volume and is vital to the functioning of the global economy. Without shipping, intercontinental trade, the bulk ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Oil spills from 1970 to 2010
The most obvious potential source of serious pollution from ships is the discharge of oil (cargoes or bunkers) as a result of ship losses. However, there has been a dramatic reduction in the number of major oil spills ov...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Transportation emission
More recently, however, the focus of the industry and its regulators – encouraged by far greater awareness of the importance of environmental issues amongst all stakeholders – has also been on the wider potential impacts...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Projected annual CO2 emissions from the shipping sector
In July 2011, international shipping became the first industrial sector to adopt binding international rules for the adoption of technical measures to reduce CO2 emissions. These technical measures were adopted by IMO as...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Seaborne oil trade and tanker spills
The ultimate goal of the shipping industry and its regulators is zero accidents and zero pollution. Although these goals have not yet been fully achieved, considerable progress has been made, especially in the context of...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Cumulative impacts on the marine environment
Climate change may, through effects on ocean currents, elevated sea temperatures, coral bleaching, shifts in marine life, ocean acidification and much more severely exacerbate the combined actions of accelerating coastal...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major pathways and origins of invasive species infestations in the marine environment
All across the planet, the number and severity of outbreaks and infestations of invasive species (i.e. species purposefully or accidentally introduced in non-native environments) is growing, and invasions of marine habit...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Primary threats to the marine environment
Each of the big five stressors (not in order of magnitude), 1) Climate change; 2) Pollution (mainly coastal), 3) Fragmentation and habitat loss (from e.g. dredging/trawling, use of explosives in fishing on coral reefs et...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Invasive species in the marine environment - problem regions
The locations of major problem areas for invasive species infestations or occurrence of exotic species in the marine environment. The impacted areas are concurrent with the areas subjected to the worst pollution, the mo...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen-depleted waters
This graphic illustrates that there is a strong correlation between the world's industrial areas and the areas in which seasonally oxygen-depleted waters occur. The accompanying text explains some of the effects of land-...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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