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Net national savings in 2001 adjusted for investments in human capital, natural resource depletion, and damage caused by pollution compared with standard net national savings measurements Net national savings in 2001 adjusted for investments in human capital, natural resource depletion, and damage caused by pollution compared with standard net national savings measurements
Positive values for national savings (expressed as a percent of gross national income) reflect a gain in wealth for a nation. Standard measures do not incorporate investments in human capital (in standard national accounting, these expenditures are treated as consumption), depletion of a variety of natural resources, or pollution damages.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Catches in the Mauritania Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 1950-2002 Catches in the Mauritania Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 1950-2002
Marine fisheries represent a significant, but finite, natural resource for coastal countries. For some countries like Mauritania, the majority of the catches belong to international fleets. This represents a significant income for the country in question, but at the same time oppurtunities for value-added services and domestic employment are lost.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major cities in the Andean community Major cities in the Andean community
The urbanisation of the population has been happening since the first city, and is rapidly increasing in rate - especially since the dawn of industrialization. The Andean community consists out of five countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia - that are in the middle income class. The fast growing cities create new problems, like slums, sewage and the supply of resources.
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in economy, Latin America and the Caribbean Trends in economy, Latin America and the Caribbean
In the period 1970-2002, Latin American economic development indicators were fluctuating significantly – from a decrease of 5.6 percent in 1971-1980 GDP growth to only 1.2 percent in 1981-1990, and an increase up to 3.3 percent GDP growth per year in the decade 1991-2000. The poverty that followed the collapse of the petroleum business in the 1980s was only reversed in the 1990s. During the last decade, as a result of economic reforms and private...
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Exports of pharmaceutical plants from Central Europe compared to gross national income (GNI) per capita Exports of pharmaceutical plants from Central Europe compared to gross national income (GNI) per capita
The Balkans are one of the most competitive sources on the world market. However, stocks of many wild species have recently declined. Some species are now rare or endangered due to the loss of their natural habitat, excessive picking, soil erosion and other factors.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Stephane Kluser, Matthias Beilstein, Ieva Rucevska, Cecile Marin, Otto Simonett
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Forest Cover in Relation to Poverty Madagascar Forest Cover in Relation to Poverty Madagascar
Even though forests are often very important to households, there is surprisingly little knowledge on the actual level of household forest income and the role of such income in maintaining livelihoods. The evidence regarding the role of forests in allowing households to move out of poverty is scant and mixed; there are examples indicating that income from forests allows households to accumulate assets and escape poverty. However, by wa...
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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Status on cost of establishing a business (compared to per capita income) Status on cost of establishing a business (compared to per capita income)
Bureaucracy and administration by local and national government can present a stumbling block for establishing businesses - in particular for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. Removing and simplifying these procedures increases the possibilities - in particular for the rural population.
28 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends and projections in rural and urban population in developing regions and high-income countries Trends and projections in rural and urban population in developing regions and high-income countries
Shows the population growth rate of both rural and urban areas from around the world from 1960 and predicting total for 2025 using World Bank projections. The level of people living in cities are constantly increasing, according to the trends.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World Population World Population
The goods we accumulate today will pile up as waste tomorrow, and more yet in view of the global trends. Projections tell us that there will be 9 000 million people on Earth by 2050. According to the Global Footprint Network life on Earth would not even be sustainable for 2 000 million people consuming at the same rate as in the richest countries today.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Population by income level Population by income level
The rich world consumes more and thus produces more waste. The World Bank classification based on gross national income per capita is an indication of the global consumption level. Over the last two decades the world as a whole did not get any richer but China and Indonesia, two densely populated countries, entered the 'middle income world', as defined by the World Bank. Consumer items are available to a growing number of individuals, particular...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Consumer items in China Consumer items in China
The impact of income on lifestyle is apparent in China like elsewhere. There has been a massive surge in all consumer goods with rising income in towns. The same trend can be observed to a much lesser extent in the country.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Global household expenditure Global household expenditure
Several trends characterise modern consumer goods. Our appetite for them continues to grow, with product ranges growing too. Meanwhile the average lifespan of many products is shortening. 80% of what we make is thrown away within six months of production. Each product contains more components and they are usually more difficult to biodegrade than before. All of which complicates the way products are processed once they become waste.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Human Development Index (HDI) for the Caspian Sea countries Human Development Index (HDI) for the Caspian Sea countries
The characteristic feature in all four post-Soviet countries (Russia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan) is a relatively high level of education in relation to national income and rather low life expectancy, indicating high levels of poverty and deficient healthcare. In contrast the level for all three indicators in Iran is fairly balanced.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, for the Caspian Sea region countries Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, for the Caspian Sea region countries
Purchasing power parity (PPP) measures how much a currency can buy in terms of an international benchmark (usually dollars), since the cost of goods and services differs between countries. PPP is below the value of a US dollar in countries where the general price index is lower than in the US (as is the case for all five Caspian states -Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan, to varying extents), and above it where the prices are h...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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National carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per capita National carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per capita
Shows various countries and their levels of CO2 emissions per capita. Also indicates the difference from high income to low income nations on CO2 output. Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country’s primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas. Emissions are not usually monitored directly, but are generally estimated using models. Some emissions can b...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Poverty in Central Asia [Russian] Poverty in Central Asia [Russian]
More than forty percent of central asians live below the poverty line and in Tajikistan it is above eighty percent. Also indicated in this slide is the low income equality index results for Central Asia. In Russian.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Poverty in Central Asia Poverty in Central Asia
More than forty percent of central asians live below the poverty line and in Tajikistan it is above eighty percent. Also indicated in this slide is the low income equality index results for Central Asia.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Gross National Income (GNI) kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan Gross National Income (GNI) kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan
The rationale of the common soviet market and economic system has disappeared, forcing Central Asian states to find their own position in the global market without the support of a redistributive economy. Their geographical position landlocked between two economic and political giants, china and Russia, makes their task difficult, especially in poor countries. All three economies are predominantly agricultural. They all rely on primary exports, e...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Household income by source, Masvingo province, Zimbabwe Household income by source, Masvingo province, Zimbabwe
A study of households (rich and poor) in the Masvingo Province in southeastern Zimbabwe provides a good example of how agricultural income complements wild income and how it compares with other income sources such as wages and remittances. Agricultural income—from crops and home gardens—contributed 30 percent of total household income (cash and subsistence income combined). Livestock rearing—a modified form of agriculture that relies on wild fora...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The composition and levels of wealth per capita for low-income countries The composition and levels of wealth per capita for low-income countries
In low-income countries, the natural section represents a quarter of the total wealth, this represents the land that is managed either by household, individual or communally, and the potential for generating income. Physical capital, represents a much smaller share as people will have less potential, compared to higher income countries, to acquire equipment, structures and infrastructure.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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