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Estimated contributions to sea-level rise (1993-2003) Estimated contributions to sea-level rise (1993-2003)
The two main reasons for sea-level rise are thermal expansion of ocean waters as they warm, and increase in the ocean mass, principally from land-based sources of ice (glaciers and ice caps, and the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica). Global warming from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations is a significant driver of both contributions to sea-level rise. From 1955 to 1995, ocean thermal expansion is estimated to have contributed about 0....
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cumulative impacts on the marine environment Cumulative impacts on the marine environment
Climate change may, through effects on ocean currents, elevated sea temperatures, coral bleaching, shifts in marine life, ocean acidification and much more severely exacerbate the combined actions of accelerating coastal development, coastal pollution and dead zones, invasive species, bottom trawling and over-harvest. These impacts will be the strongest in 10-15% of the Worlds oceans. These areas, however, are concurrent with the most productive ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Plankton distribution changes, due to climate changes - North Sea Plankton distribution changes, due to climate changes - North Sea
With melting sea ice and warming of the oceans, marine species change their distributions, affecting entire food chains and ocean productivity. In 2005 the subtropical dinoflagellate Ceratium hexacanthum was found in CPR samples from the North Sea at levels that were 6 standard deviations above previous measurements since 1958. Further evidence of this warning signal is seen in the appearance of a Pacific planktonic plant (a diatom Neodenticula s...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Coastal regions with observations of dense shelf water flushing Coastal regions with observations of dense shelf water flushing
Knowledge and mapping of these processes is still scarce due to uneven research effort. The map shows sites with known dense shelf water cascading phenomena, which often may involve the 'flushing' effect. It is most likely that this phenomenon is also active off the coast of Alaska, Chile, Argentina and West and southern Africa and in parts of the Indian Ocean. Dense shelf water cascading is highly sensitive to increases in temperature, and hence...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Distribution of coldwater and tropical coral reefs Distribution of coldwater and tropical coral reefs
Coral reefs are marine ridges or mounds, which have formed over millennia as a result of the deposition of calcium carbonate by living organisms, predominantly corals, but also a rich diversity of other organisms such as coralline algae and shellfish. The coldwater reefs are highly susceptible to deep-sea trawling and ocean acidification from climate change, which has its greatest impacts at high latitudes, while tropical reefs will become severe...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in natural disasters Trends in natural disasters
With growing population and infrastructures the world’s exposure to natural hazards is inevitably increasing. This is particularly true as the strongest population growth is located in coastal areas (with greater exposure to floods, cyclones and tidal waves). To make matters worse any land remaining available for urban growth is generally risk-prone, for instance flood plains or steep slopes subject to landslides. The statistics in this graphic r...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change and tropical coral reefs, scenarios for bleaching events Climate change and tropical coral reefs, scenarios for bleaching events
Projected areas of above normal sea temperature where coral bleaching is likely to occur for the SRES A2 scenario (continuing current trends) by two different models, the PCM (1.7°C increase in 100 years) and the HadCM3 (3°C increase in 100 years) by approximately 2035 (left) and by 2055 (right). Both models project severe annual bleaching in more than 80% of the Worlds coral reefs by 2080.
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Acidification due to climate change - impacts for oceans and coral reefs Acidification due to climate change - impacts for oceans and coral reefs
As carbon concentrations in the atmosphere increase from land use changes and emissions from fossil fuels - so do concentrations in the ocean, with resultant acidification as a natural chemical process. The skeletons of coldwater coral reefs may dissolve, perhaps already within a few decades. The impacts will be greatest at high latitudes. This will have an impact on all marine organisms with calcerous shells and body parts, in addition to coral ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) - Mauna Loa or Keeling curve Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) - Mauna Loa or Keeling curve
Atmospheric concentration of CO2 is steadily rising, and oceans directly assimilate CO2. As ocean concentration of CO2 increases, the oceans automatically become more acidic. This, in turn, may have severe impacts on coral reefs and other biocalcifying organisms. There is little debate on the effect as this is a straight-forward chemical process, but the implications for marine life, that may be severe due to many very pH-sensitive relationships...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tropical sea temperature rises and coral reefs - climate change scenarios Tropical sea temperature rises and coral reefs - climate change scenarios
The impacts of coral reefs from rising sea temperatures. When coral reefs become heat-exposed they die, leaving the white dead coral, also known as bleaching. With even moderate pollution, the coral are easily overgrown with algae, or broken down by wave activity or storms, leaving only “coral rubble” on the ocean bed.
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) case studies Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) case studies
The Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) is an example of a comprehensive strategic assessment designed to identify priorities for remedial and mitigatory actions in international waters. This graphic shows GIWA case studies for the Black Sea, the Amazon, the Great Barrier Reef and the Agulhas Current. Each case study includes an introduction and maps of the region and a discussion of the issues of concern for that region, such as freshw...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sea level change: estimations and predictions Sea level change: estimations and predictions
This resource includes four graphics that explain sea level change, an expected consequence of climate change. The first graphic, 'Relative Sea Level Over the Past 300 Years', shows the changes in sea level rise, in metres, that have occurred between 1700 and 2000 at three different locations: Amsterdam, Brest and Swinoujscie (in Poland). The second graphic, 'Causes of Sea Level Change: Simulated Global Mean Sea Level Changes 1900-2100' and the t...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Causes of sea level rise from climate change Causes of sea level rise from climate change
A significant sea level rise is one of the major anticipated consequences of climate change. This graphic explains the causes of sea level change according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It explains the IPCC's A1 scenario family, which consists of three scenarios on future use of fossil energy sources, including scenario A1F1, which involves the use of fossil-intensive energy sources. This resource also includes the grap...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods Examples of GHG emission amounts generated by different activities or goods
are scattered across the book in the form of proportional bubbles (in kilograms of CO2 equivalent).
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions from agriculture Emissions from agriculture
Average emissions, thousand million tonnes of CO2 equivalent per year in various agriculture generated emission gases.
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Some examples of the effect of individual behaviour on greenhouse gas emissions in France Some examples of the effect of individual behaviour on greenhouse gas emissions in France
The area of the squares is proportionate to the annual reduction in emissions in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent. Displaying main areas of housing investment, daily life and private car investment.
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Introducing the main renewable energies Introducing the main renewable energies
Applications: Electricity production, Industrial process, Heating or cooling buildings, Warmer water and Transport.
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenhouse gas emissions for three sectors: Transport, Industrial processes and Agriculture Greenhouse gas emissions for three sectors: Transport, Industrial processes and Agriculture
For developing countries (i.e. non-Annex I countries), data is either old or missing. To better reflect the truth, data from 2000 is chosen to overlap from IEA (dashed circles).
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Biofuel versus fossil fuel Biofuel versus fossil fuel
In green: virtuous initial equation in favour of biofuels, In red: main concerns related to biofuels, In blue: main concerns related to fossil fuels.
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Varying contribution to climate change Varying contribution to climate change
Share of transport-related greenhouse gas emissions generated by rail, sea, air and road.
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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