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CO2 air emissions by sources in 1995 CO2 air emissions by sources in 1995
The graph shows CO2 air emissions from selected countries by various sources in 1995. Among the anthropogenic sources of CO2 air emissions are fossil fuel combustion, cement production and land-use conversion.
13 Feb 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Dobris+3: overall pan-european assessment Dobris+3: overall pan-european assessment
The graph shows Dobris+3: overall pan-european assessment. It describes positive or negative developments within various environmental branches, such as climate change, biodiversity and urban environment, the occurence of environmental policies as well as the principal drivers of said environmental developments.
13 Feb 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, Finland Emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, Finland
The graph shows Finnish emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases from 1980 to 1996 with projections to 2010 according to second national communications to UNFCCC. Greenhouse gases are largely produced by human activities such as industrial processes, fossil fuel combustion, and changes in land use, including deforestation.
06 Nov 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Losses in windstorm catastrophes Losses in windstorm catastrophes
Emissions from human activities, and primarily fossil fuels, contribute to climate change, global warming and the greenhouse effect. This is primarily from industry, energy, transportation and related sectors. Please note that this collection of graphics has since been updated, please see http://www.grida.no or http://unfccc.int/ for the latest information and graphics
12 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Temperature trends and projections Temperature trends and projections
The global average surface temperature has increased over the 20th century by about 0.6 degrees Celsius. This increase in temperature is likely to have been the largest for any century in the last 1000 years. Evidence from tree ring records, used to reconstruct temperatures over this period, suggests that the 1990s was the warmest period in a millennium. It is very likely that nearly all land areas will warm more rapidly than the global average, ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Modeled temperature compared to observed temperature for the last 150 years Modeled temperature compared to observed temperature for the last 150 years
As we can see from models of temperature changes caused by natural forcing, we should have observed a decrease in the global average temperature lately, but we have not. We have observed an increase. A climate model can be used to simulate the temperature changes that occur from both natural and anthropogenic causes. The simulations in a) were done with only natural forcings: solar variation and volcanic activity. In b) only anthropogenic forc...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Kyoto protocol, cost of implementation Kyoto protocol, cost of implementation
The Kyoto Protocol is only a first step towards combating climate change. Drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are required to avoid the most threatening consequences of global warming. Concerns are raised that the price for the economy will be too high, but studies indicate that there will only be a small reduction in GDP to reach the Kyoto targets and that it is possible to stabilize the concentration of CO2 at low costs. The GDP los...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mitigating climate change: cost in 2050 (out of GDP) Mitigating climate change: cost in 2050 (out of GDP)
Global average GDP might be reduced by 1–4% if we reduce the emissions of CO2 so that we stabilize the concentration in the atmosphere at 450 ppmv. In 2003 the concentration was 375 ppmv. If we stabilise at higher concentration levels, the GDP reduction will be less. The projected mitigation scenarios do not take into account potential benefits of avoided climate change. Cost-effectiveness studies with a century time scale estimate that the mit...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sensitivity, adaptability and vulnerability Sensitivity, adaptability and vulnerability
Sensitivity is the degree to which a system is affected, either adversely or beneficially, by climate-related stimuli. Climate-related stimuli encompass all the elements of climate change, including mean climate characteristics, climate variability, and the frequency and magnitude of extremes. The effect may be direct (e.g., a change in crop yield in response to a change in the mean, range or variability of temperature) or indirect (e.g., damages...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Impact of Sea Level Rise in Banjul, Gambia Impact of Sea Level Rise in Banjul, Gambia
Climate change is expected to cause a rise in sea level. Sea level rise will have a significant impact on coastal areas, especially coastal megacities such as Banjul, the Gambia. This graphic shows the expected sea level rise in metres for various parts of the city of Banjul, and the impacts of sea level rise on the city, its suburbs and main roads and its nearby mangrove swamps, which serve as spawning grounds for fish.
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Factors influencing the greenhouse effect Factors influencing the greenhouse effect
There are three main factors that directly influence the energy balance of the earth: the total energy influx, which depends on the earth's distance from the sun and on solar activity; the chemical composition of the atmosphere, and albedo, the ability of the earth's surface to reflect light. The only factor that has changed significantly in the last 100 years is the chemical composition of the atmosphere. This resource also includes a graphic th...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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In the Grip of Malaria in Africa In the Grip of Malaria in Africa
There is increasing evidence that climate change has a significant role in causing malaria epidemics. As climatic conditions change, the locations of suitable breeding habitats for the mosquitoes that transmit malaria and other diseases will change. This graphic shows the locations of malaria-free areas, malaria transmission areas and the areas in which malaria has largely been eliminated in Africa, as of 2002.
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Changing Biomes in South Africa Changing Biomes in South Africa
Predictions of the effects of climate change on natural ecosystems in South Africa, over the medium to long term, have included reduced spatial extent of the Grassland biome (Ellery et al. 1991) and an increase in the extent of the Desert biome (Macdonald & Midgley 1996). This graphic shows how the Grassland Biome is expected to shrink as surrounding biomes expand their ranges. It also shows how increasingly arid conditions in the Northern Cape r...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Malnutrition and Famine Malnutrition and Famine
Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa face chronic malnutrition, with frequent famine episodes. This graphic shows the locations of areas in Africa which face chronic malnutrition (less than 2300 calories per day and per capita, 1995-1997), areas which are affected by food shortages, the main areas that have experienced famines during the last thirty years (approximately 1966 to 1996) and the locations of the main conflicts that occurred in Africa...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Food Production Index Food Production Index
Per capita food production is declining in Africa, but it is increasing steadily in the world as a whole. This graphic shows the net food production per capita (PIN base 1989-1991) for Africa and for the world for the time period 1961 to 2001.
17 May 2005 - by Digout, Delphine, based on a sketch by Philippe Rekacewicz; UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Impact of Temperature Rise on Tea in Kenya Impact of Temperature Rise on Tea in Kenya
Increasing temperatures will likely affect major crops such as tea in Kenya. Major impacts on food production will come from changes in temperature, moisture levels, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, CO2 levels, and pests and diseases. This graphic shows the current locations of tea-growing areas in Kenya, and how some of these areas are expected to become less suitable for tea-growing if there is a temperature rise of 2 degrees Celsius.
17 May 2005 - by Otto Simonett, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water availability in Africa Water availability in Africa
Water resources are inextricably linked with climate, so the prospect of global climate change has serious implications for water resources and regional development (Riebsame et al., 1995). This graphic shows water availability per capita in cubic metres for selected countries in Africa in 1990, with projected data for 2025. It also shows which countries were affected by water stress, water scarcity and water vulnerability in 1990, with projected...
17 May 2005 - by Digout, Delphine, based on a sketch by Philippe Rekacewicz; UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change vulnerability in Africa Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands) are most vulnerable to specific impacts of climate change. These impacts include desertification, sea level rise, reduced freshwater availability,...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Deforestation in West Africa: Case Cote-d'Ivoire Deforestation in West Africa: Case Cote-d'Ivoire
The average annual rate of change in total forest area from 1990 to 2000 for the whole of Africa was estimated to be -0.74 %, equivalent to losing more than 5 million ha of forest a year, an area roughly the size of Togo, and the highest rate of any region. (UNEP: GEO [Global Environment Outlook] 3). This graphic shows how deforestation has occurred in Cote d'Ivoire (the Ivory Coast) by comparing the area's forests in 1955 and in 1988. It shows a...
17 May 2005 - by Rekacewicz, Philippe, based on a sketch by Le Monde, Paris; UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sea level rise: Costa Rica coastal communities under threat Sea level rise: Costa Rica coastal communities under threat
Sea level rise is an important indicator of climate change. A rise in sea level may result in flooding, salinisation of fresh water, coastal erosion and in some cases loss of land to the ocean. As depicted, some coastal communities in Costa Rica are particularly vulnerable to sea level rise.
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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