HomeAboutActivitiesMapsPhotosPublicationsNews
 
Home >> Climate

Tag: Climate

World population scenarios World population scenarios
Some factors (such as global population growth) will begin to decline in importance and others (distribution of people, climate change, and changes to nutrient cycles) will gain more importance in the near future.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment conceptual framework Millennium Ecosystem Assessment conceptual framework
International demand for timber may lead to a regional loss of forest cover, which increases flood magnitude along a local stretch of a river. Similarly, the interactions can take place across different time scales. Actions can be taken either to respond to negative changes or to enhance positive changes at almost all points in this framework.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Number of flood events by continent and decade since 1950 Number of flood events by continent and decade since 1950
Roughly 17% of all the urban land in the United States is located in the 100-year flood zone. Likewise, in Japan about 50% of the population lives on floodplains, which cover only 10% of the land area. In Bangladesh, the percentage of floodprone areas is much higher and inundation of more than half of the country is not uncommon.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Characteristic time and space scales related to ecosystems and their services Characteristic time and space scales related to ecosystems and their services
The time scale of change refers to the time required for the effects of a perturbation of a process to be expressed. Inertia refers to the delay or slowness in the response of a system to factors altering their rate of change, including continuation of change in the system after the cause of that change has been removed.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
2
Multiple stressors in small-scale agriculture Multiple stressors in small-scale agriculture
There is a need to develop agricultural policies that both reduce emissions and allow adaptation to climate change that are closer to carbon-neutral, minimize trace gas emissions and reduce natural capital degradation. Important questions include how emissions from agriculture and forestry can be effectively reduced, how to produce food with greater input efficiency, and less GHG emissions, how can agriculture, agroforestry and forestry best adap...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Projected impact of climate change Projected impact of climate change
Future climate change and projected impacts: Increased growth and yield rates due to higher levels of carbon dioxide and temperatures could result in longer growing seasons. For example, in mid to high latitude regions, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report moderate local increases in temperature (1-2ºC) can have small beneficial impacts on crop yields.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Climate zones of the Caucasus ecoregion Climate zones of the Caucasus ecoregion
The Caucasus ecoregion covers an area of 580,000 km2, and includes six countries. The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range with its lofty peaks forms a formidable barrier between the northern and southern parts of the ecoregion. The Lesser Caucasus mountain chain extends across Georgia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and into Iran. The climates in the regions mountaineous and temperature.
29 Jan 2008 - by WWF-Caucasus, design Manana Kurtubadze
5
Glacier shrinking on Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island, Canadian Arctic Glacier shrinking on Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island, Canadian Arctic
A new glacier inventory based on satellite data shows that the glacier cover reduced by about 22 per cent between the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum extent and 2000. Changes in glacier area and volume are being used as indicators for climate change and global warming.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
5
Projected agriculture in 2080 due to climate change Projected agriculture in 2080 due to climate change
With our climate changes, we have to adapt our ways to a new environment – in most cases warmer and possibly wetter and drier. Projections on the climate in the future provide some guidance for us, but how can we create models for how the human society reacts? This map presents a rough idea of changes in agricultural output from increased temperatures, precipitation differences and also from carbon fertilization for plants. Projecting climate is ...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Forests working for the global climate - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries (REDD) Forests working for the global climate - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries (REDD)
Carbon trading of credits from avoided deforestation could yield billions of dollars for tropical countries, according to an analysis by Rhett A.Butler, founder and editor from mongabay.com, a leading tropical forest web site. The proposed mechanism - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries (REDD) - will enable these countries to maintain their forests as a global resource. Using conservative estimates on carbon storage in ...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Greenland, showing rates of surface-elevation change between the late 1990s and 2003 Greenland, showing rates of surface-elevation change between the late 1990s and 2003
Mass-balance estimates for Greenland show thickening at high elevations since the early 1990s at rates that increased to about 4 cm per year after 2000, consistent with expectations of increasing snowfall in a warming climate. However, this mass gain is far exceeded by losses associated with large increases in thinning of the ice sheet near the coast. Total loss from the ice sheet more than doubled, from a few tens of billions of tonnes per year ...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature
The more recent history, from the middle ages and up until now, show increasing temperatures, rising as the world emerged from the Little Ice Age (LIA), around 1850. With the industrial era, human activities have at the same time increased the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, primarily through the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide is one of the main greenhouse gases, and scientists have been able to connect human activities ...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Temperature increases in the Antarctic due to climate change, 2090 (NCAR-CCM3, SRES A2 experiment) Temperature increases in the Antarctic due to climate change, 2090 (NCAR-CCM3, SRES A2 experiment)
Climate change, due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, has not lead as clear changes in the Antarctic as in the Arctic. Some of the ice shelves of the Antarctic peninsula have split up and started moving more rapidly, but the analyses of the Antarctic ice sheet are inconclusive. The projected climate situation in 2090 are presented in this figure, the temperatures are annual values from the NCAR-CCM3 model, ensembl...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Population distribution in the circumpolar Arctic, by country (including indigenous population) Population distribution in the circumpolar Arctic, by country (including indigenous population)
The Arctic represents one of the most desolate and sparsely populated areas in the World, with few economic opporunities and inhostile climate. This map - based on the Arctic Human Development Report (AHDR) definition of the Arctic, presents the distribution by country. Note that except for Greenland and Northern Canada, indigenous peoples form a minority, though they can form the majority in local communities. They are therefore particularly vul...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Vegetation density/distribution in the high Arctic Vegetation density/distribution in the high Arctic
The current vegetation density and distribution in the high Arctic can be calculated using satellite images. The vegetation index, 'greenness' (NDVI) represents a benchmark of the presence and ratio of photosynthesis. In monitoring the vegetation, scientists can keep an eye on the situation and use the index as an indicator of climate change - increased temperatures would enable the forest and tundra to move further north.
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Cold places on the Southern Continent Cold places on the Southern Continent
Antarctica is the coldest, driest and windiest continent on Earth. This graph shows the annual temperatures and seasonal variation at three locations in Antarctica - the research bases Bernardo O'Higgins (Chile - on the Antarctic Peninsula), Scott Base (New Zealand - Ross Island) and one of the coldest places on the planet - the Vostok station (Russia - at the center of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet). The surface temperatures are long term average...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980 Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period, relative to 1951-1980
Warming is widespread, generally greater over land than over oceans, and the largest gains in temperatures for the planet are over the North American Arctic, north central Siberia, and on the Antarctic Peninsula. These recent increases in temperature are confirmed by changes in other features: loss of sea ice, shift of tundra to shrub vegetation, and migration of marine and terrestrial ecosystems to higher latitudes.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Protected areas, Arctic and Antarctic Protected areas, Arctic and Antarctic
Protected areas are very important for conserving biodiversity. In these areas, human activities are managed to achieve specific conservation goals, for example, to protect a certain species or to conserve a representative habitat or ecosystem. The Arctic has many terrestrial protected areas, but is generally lacking in marine protected areas (MPAs). As the climate warms and the sea ice melts, there will be greater access for activities such as f...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Projected temperature increases in the Arctic due to climate change, 2090 (NCAR-CCM3, SRES A2 experiment) Projected temperature increases in the Arctic due to climate change, 2090 (NCAR-CCM3, SRES A2 experiment)
Climate change, due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, has lead to increased temperatures and large scale changes in the Arctic. The Arctic sea ice is decreasing, permafrost thawing and the glaciers and ice sheets are shrinking. The projected climate situation in 2090 are presented in this figure, the temperatures are annual values from the NCAR-CCM3 model, ensemble averages 1-5 for the SRES A2 experiment. The ice ...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Coldwater coral reefs, distribution Coldwater coral reefs, distribution
Scientists are just beginning to learn about the many species in the remote, deep waters of the polar oceans. Corals, for example, are not limited to the warm, shallow waters of the tropics. They also exist in many cold, deep waters all over the world, including Arctic and sub-Antarctic waters. Coral reefs are marine ridges or mounds, which have formed over millennia as a result of the deposition of calcium carbonate by living organisms, predomin...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4