HomeAboutActivitiesMapsPhotosPublicationsNews
 
Home >> Climate

Tag: Climate

Climate change and natural disaster impacts in the Ferghana Valley Climate change and natural disaster impacts in the Ferghana Valley
Central Asia is a disaster-prone area, exposed to various natural hazards such as floods, droughts, avalanches, rockslide and earthquakes. It is also vulnerable to man-made disasters related to industrial activity and the radioactive and chemical dumps inherited from the Soviet period. Several factors - population density in disaster-prone areas, high overall population growth, poverty, land and water use, failure to comply with building codes an...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Trends in regional average surface temperature in the Ferghana Valley area Trends in regional average surface temperature in the Ferghana Valley area
An important factor when looking at the region in terms of environment and security is the impact of climate change in Central Asia in general, and Ferghana Valley in particular. By modifying people’s livelihood, climate change may have an important security dimension in conjunction with other aggravating factors. In the Ferghana valley it is likely that climate change will primarily affect sector related to water and agriculture. Central Asia is...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090 - with shipping routes Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090 - with shipping routes
The averages of the scenarios in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) are presented in this figure, for the year 2090, with the surface temperatures over land, the size of the polar ice cap, and the outer limits of permafrost. This map features shipping routes in addition - as the sea ice is decreasing, the potential for developing shipping in the Arctic increases.
16 Sep 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Re-infestation by 'Aedes aegypti' Re-infestation by 'Aedes aegypti'
Climate change affect the health of the population, not only through heat waves and waterborne diseases, but also as a result of the expansion of geographical areas conducive to the transmission of vector-borne diseases such as yellow fever, dengue and malaria. Species of mosquitoes, such as the group ‘Anopheles gambiae’, ‘A. funestus’, ‘A. darlingi’, ‘Culex quinquefasciatus’ and ‘Aedes aegypti’, are responsible for propagation of the majority of...
16 Sep 2006 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Assosciate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Rainfall variability and economic growth in Zimbabwe Rainfall variability and economic growth in Zimbabwe
In Zimbabwe, trends in economic growth have been linked to rainfall variability, which can be attributed to sensitivity in the agricultural sector. Improved water resources management is critical to the stability and security that is required for economic development. The recent decline in growth can be caused by other factors such as land reform policies (starting in 2000).
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
2
Ecoregions prioritised for conservation, in the Arctic (WWF Global 200) Ecoregions prioritised for conservation, in the Arctic (WWF Global 200)
Ecoregions represent large areas with geographically characteristic fauna, flora and climate - both marine and terrestrial. This graphic presents the ecoregion definitions identified by the World Wildlife Fund and associated experts, and specifically those ecoregions that have been designated as priority areas (Global 200 database) for conservation. This means that these ecoregions represent unique biodiversity characteristics, and also that ther...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
2
Temperature increase in the Arctic, 2090 scenario Temperature increase in the Arctic, 2090 scenario
The averages of the scenarios in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) are presented in this figure, for the year 2090. The Arctic is a place where the effects of climate change are already very visible, and scenarios suggests that this will be one of the regions were the effects will be at its strongest.
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
2
Fossil fuel resources and oil and gas production in the Arctic Fossil fuel resources and oil and gas production in the Arctic
The Arctic has been opened up for increased exploration of petroleum, gas and mining activities. The Barents Sea, the Mackenzie Valley in Canada and the Alaskan North Slope, are the areas of chief interest at the moment. With increased temperatures and climate change, it is expected that the commercial intrest for more extraction and exploration will increase, as well as shipping of the products. As sea ice decreases, the shipping lanes will beco...
06 Dec 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz & Hugo Ahlenius UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Mass balance reference glaciers in nine mountain ranges Mass balance reference glaciers in nine mountain ranges
Thirty reference glaciers with almost continuous mass balance measurements since 1975 show an average annual mass loss of 0.58 m water equivalent for the past decade (1996–2005), which is more than twice the loss rate of the period 1986–1995 (0.25 m), and more than four times the rate of the period 1976–1985 (0.14 m). The results from these 30 continuous mass balance series correspond well to estimates based on a larger sample of more tha...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Time series of freeze-up and break-up dates from selected Northern Hemisphere lakes and rivers, 1846–1995 Time series of freeze-up and break-up dates from selected Northern Hemisphere lakes and rivers, 1846–1995
Limited by the availability of detailed observations, most historical evaluations of changes in freshwater ice have focused on relatively simple characteristics, such as the timing of autumn freeze up and spring break up, and maximum ice-cover thickness. Based on 27 long-term (about 150-year) records from around the Northern Hemisphere, Magnuson and others (Figure 8.1) discovered that freeze up has been delayed by approximately six days per hundr...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Temperatures over previous centuries from various proxy records Temperatures over previous centuries from various proxy records
Evidence from tree rings and other temperature proxies suggests that during the previous 500 years global temperatures were 1.0ºC cooler than those of the 20th century during a period roughly from 1300 to 1870 – known as the Little Ice Age. While overall temperatures during the Little Ice Age were cooler than now, there was much year-to-year variability and some warm periods. The coldest part of the Little Ice Age, from 1645 to 1715, was also a t...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Trends in permafrost temperatures and active-layer thickness, Northern Tien Shan mountains Trends in permafrost temperatures and active-layer thickness, Northern Tien Shan mountains
Mountain permafrost in Central Asia occupies approximately 3.5 million square kilometers and makes up about 15 per cent of the total permafrost area in the Northern Hemisphere. The climatic variations during the 20th century and especially during the last two decades have impacted current permafrost temperatures. In the Tien Shan Mountains, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and western Mongolian sector of the Altai Mountains, observations over the last 30 ...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Change in the age of ice on the Arctic Ocean, comparing September ice ages in 1988, 1990, 2001 and 2005 Change in the age of ice on the Arctic Ocean, comparing September ice ages in 1988, 1990, 2001 and 2005
The age of sea ice in the Arctic is changing, and not only the extent and concentrations. Studies show that in recent years there is a higher proportion of younger ice to older ice than was observed in the late 1980s. This analysis is based on results from a simulation using drifting buoy data and satellite-derived ice-concentration data. The darker the colour, the older the ice.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
5
Glacier shrinking on Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island, Canadian Arctic Glacier shrinking on Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island, Canadian Arctic
A new glacier inventory based on satellite data shows that the glacier cover reduced by about 22 per cent between the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum extent and 2000. Changes in glacier area and volume are being used as indicators for climate change and global warming.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Trends in Arctic temperature, 1880-2006 Trends in Arctic temperature, 1880-2006
A history of Arctic land temperature anomalies from 1880 through 2006 is shown in this figure. The zero line represents the average temperature for 1961–1990. In the late 1800s the Arctic was relatively cold, although there is some uncertainty around these early temperature estimates. The Arctic warmed by about 0.7ºC over the 20th century. There was a warm period in the 1920s to 1940s and cold periods in the early 1900s and in the 1960s. Over th...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Trends in sea level, 1870-2006 Trends in sea level, 1870-2006
Coastal and island tide-gauge data show that sea level rose by just under 20 cm between 1870 and 2001, with an average rise of 1.7 mm per year during the 20th century and with an increase in the rate of rise over this period. This is consistent with the geological data and the few long records of sea level from coastal tide gauges. From 1993 to the end of 2006, near-global measurements of sea level (between 65°N and 65°S) made by high precision s...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
2
Projected sea-level rise for the 21st century Projected sea-level rise for the 21st century
The projected range of global averaged sea-level rise from the IPCC 2001 Assessment Report for the period 1990 to 2100 is shown by the lines and shading. The updated AR4 IPCC projections made are shown by the bars plotted at 2095, the dark blue bar is the range of model projections (90% confidence limits) and the light blue bar has the upper range extended to allow for the potential but poorly quantified additional contribution from a dynamic res...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
5
World ocean thermohaline circulation World ocean thermohaline circulation
The global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is driven primarily by the formation and sinking of deep water (from around 1500m to the Antarctic bottom water overlying the bottom of the ocean) in the Norwegian Sea. When the strength of the haline forcing increases due to excess precipitation, runoff, or ice melt the conveyor belt will weaken or even shut down. The variability in the strength of the conveyor belt will lead to climate change in...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Effects of sea-level rise on water resources of small islands and low-lying coastal areas Effects of sea-level rise on water resources of small islands and low-lying coastal areas
The water resources of small islands and low-lying coastal areas are very susceptible to sea-level rise. This figure illustrates the direct impacts on the water resources sector, as well as the plethora of higher-order impacts which affect not only that sector but most, if not all, other sectors including health, transport and agriculture.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Monthly average sea ice extent globally and in both hemispheres Monthly average sea ice extent globally and in both hemispheres
In the Arctic, winter sea ice extends over an area of approximately 15 million km2 at its peak in March and up to 7 million km2 in September, at the end of the summer melt season. Corresponding numbers for the Southern Ocean around the Antarctic continent are approximately 3 million km2 in February during the Antarctic summer and 18 million km2 at the height of winter in September. In regions with seasonal sea ice, the ice cover achieves a thickn...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4