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Urban Growth of Selected Mountain Cities
In developing countries, the share of mountain populations living in cities is steadily increasing. Over one-quarter of mountain populations in the developing world now live in urban areas and cities (FAO, 2015). Large c...
09 Dec 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Hisham Ashkar
Average Municipal Solid Waste Generation and Efficiency
here is a steady increase in the generation of non-organic recyclable waste, as income levels in these countries increases. This is expected to continue in the future: as the level of development increases, income per ca...
09 Dec 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Hisham Ashkar
Tailing Storage Facility Failures in Mountains Regions
09 Dec 2016 - by GRID-Arendal /Hisham Ashkar
Ski Stations Outside of Europe and North America, 2016
The literature on the impacts of ski tourism on the environment, and the waste implications and solutions, is largely limited to examples from the European Alps and North America. These include: • Littering by skiers...
09 Dec 2016 - by GRID-Arendal /Hisham Ashkar
OK Tedi Mine
The Ok Tedi mine, one of the largest copper mines in the world, demonstrates the difficulty of waste management in mountain environments and the impact mine waste can have on downstream people and ecosystems. The Ok Tedi...
09 Dec 2016 - by GRID-Arendal /Hisham Ashkar
Municipal Solid Waste Composition
The characteristics of solid waste generated in large mountain cities relates more to levels of development than to altitude. Solid waste produced in mountainous cities in low and middle-income developing countries has a...
09 Dec 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Hisham Ashkar
Distribution of Mountain Area and Population, 2012
09 Dec 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Hisham Ashkar
Percentage of Mountain Area per Country
09 Dec 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Hisham Ashkar
Timeline of K'ara K'ara Landfill
The K’ara K’ara dumpsite is located in Cochabamba, Bolivia and is about 25 ha in size. The total amount of waste in this landfill is estimated to be between 2.8 and 4 million tonnes; the Ministry of Environment and Water...
09 Dec 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Hisham Ashkar
South America's Highest Altitude Mines
The same geological processes that have created the mountains of the world have also produced rich mineral belts including gold, copper, zinc, lead and coal. Today, mining is the most common heavy industry within mountai...
09 Dec 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Hisham Ashkar
Highest Cities in the World
Most of the world’s large mountainous cities are found in the southern hemisphere in developing countries in the low to middle income bracket; high mountain cities in developed countries do not have large populations. Th...
09 Dec 2016 - by GRID-Arendal /Hisham Ashkar
The Waste Implications of Climbing and Trekking on Mount Everest
The number of climbers attempting the summit of Mount Everest has risen drastically since its first ascent in 1953, especially from the early 1990s onwards as a result of commercialised guiding operations. Managing the in...
09 Dec 2016 - by GRID-Arendal /Hisham Ashkar
Typical Debris Streams for Different Types of Disasters
Apart from the direct cost to human lives and property, disasters have significant waste implications. Disasters can generate a huge amount of waste in a very short time, overwhelming the capacities of municipalities and...
09 Dec 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Hisham Ashkar
Artisanal Gold Mining and Mercury Emissions
09 Dec 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Hisham Ashkar
Tourism Impact on Aconcagua Provincial Park - Argentina
Case studies suggest that the number of people mountaineering and trekking has increased over the years across different mountain ranges (Lew and Han, 2015; Rassler, 2014), particularly in the developing world.The number...
09 Dec 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Hishan Ashkar
Mount Elgon
Mount Elgon is shared between Uganda and Kenya and stands at a height of about 4,000 metres above sea level (MoWE, 2013). In Uganda, Mount Elgon National Park covers nearly 1,121 km² of the mountain’s 4,000 km² area (UWA...
19 Oct 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Greater Virunga
The mountain ecosystems of East Africa are rich in biodiversity and are an important resource for local communities. They provide food, freshwater, fibre, fuel, shelter, building materials, medicines and other important ...
19 Oct 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Regional institutional arrangements
At the transnational level, a significant number of policies and institutional frameworks exist and are in operation. In East Africa, these arrangements can be used to pursue the agenda for sustainable mountain develop...
19 Oct 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Climate Change Effects
According to the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report, Africa has seen an increase in temperature by 0.5 °C or more during the last 50 to 100 years. The temperature changes in East Africa are in line with UNDP Climate Change C...
19 Oct 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Contribution to climate change
A key constraint hindering the development of the energy sector is limited finance. In addition to the economic costs of constructing dams, there is the social and environmental cost to consider. The construction of ne...
19 Oct 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Projected change in the distribution of malaria's vectors
*Under a climate change scenario with a rise of 2°C Africa wide temperature, 10% increase of summer rainfall and 10% decrease in winter rainfall. The overall climatic suitability of a nominated location for the two speci...
19 Oct 2016 - by GRID-Arendal /Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Climate change impacts on agriculture
While projections for future impacts of climate change on agriculture in large parts of Africa are dire, the mountainous areas of East Africa may benefit from warmer temperatures and an increase in precipitation (Niang e...
19 Oct 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Ecosystem services: Tourism
Tourism is an important and growing economic sector for East Africa. Economic revenues from tourism for Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Uganda, DRC and Tanzania amount to an annual average of over USD 7 billion (World B...
19 Oct 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
East Africa region
The majority of countries in Africa have land that is over 1,500 m above sea level, and therefore classified as mountainous (UNEP 2014). East Africa is home to some of Africa’s most prominent mountains, including Mount K...
19 Oct 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Ecosystem services: Energy
Access to electricity is one of East Africa’s key constraints. In the majority of the subregion, less than 20 per cent of the population has access to electricity (UNEP, 2014). Firewood and charcoal remain the most com...
19 Oct 2016 - by GRID-Arendal /Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Ecosystem services
Agriculture is the backbone of East Africa’s economy,and the most important livelihood strategy for mountain communities is to ensure regional food security. East Africa’s mountainous areas are known for their favourab...
19 Oct 2016 - by GRID-Arendal / Nieves Lopez Izquierdo
Human well-being and the four capitals
Economic, social, human and natural capital are all inter-linked and are constantly changing. All four types of capital contribute directly to human well-being. Economic and social capital are seen most commonly through ...
26 Aug 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Hisham Ashkar
Linking indicators for policy guidance
Drawing from available data, the Biodiversity Indicators Partnership (BIP; www.bipindicators.net) used the pressure-state-benefit-response framework to identify a series of indicators that measure progress against the Ai...
26 Aug 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Hisham Ashkar
Blue Carbon
In terms of providing protection from extreme events, coral reefs, seagrasses, mangroves and dunes, can also, in certain circumstances, provide protection against storm surges byforming barriers along coastlines. Suc...
26 Aug 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Hisham Ashkar
Number of people who may receive risk reduction benefits from reefs by country
Coastal communities across the globe are increasingly at risk from storms and flooding as a side effect of climate change paired with rapid human-led coastal development. Nature- based solutions like coral reefs offer a ...
26 Aug 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Hisham Ashkar
Natural and Social Capital can be mutually supportive
In addition to bringing together conservation and development objectives, the ecosystem services perspective has the potential to create a link between human activities as they benefit from, or impact on, marine and coas...
26 Aug 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Hisham Ashkar
Marine genetic diversity and human health
Marine and coastal ecosystems help ensuring healthy lives by providing high-value protein and essential micronutrients, minerals and fatty acids to people’s diets, often at very significant levels.
26 Aug 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Hisham Ashkar
Marine fisheries employment 2011, by region
Fisheries depend exclusively on marine ecosystem services through food provision as well as habitat and water purification functions. As well, these fisheries support around 260 million jobs worldwide, both directly in f...
26 Aug 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Hisham Ashkar
Our closeness to the ocean
The ocean produces half the oxygen we breathe, and absorbs 30 per cent of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and approximately 93 per cent of the added heat arising from human-driven changes to the atmosphere ...
26 Aug 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Hisham Ashkar
The relationship between the four capitals
Achieving sustainable development requires more than an awareness or a measurement of natural capital. We must take action to maintain and enhance the value of all four types of capital upon which people depend: natural ...
26 Aug 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Hisham Ashkar
Healthy oceans support a range of sustainable development goals
The ocean, together with the ecosystems, habitats and species therein, provides benefits to humans in numerous and diverse ways, and this is reflected in many aspects of humanity’s religions and traditions, stretching ba...
26 Aug 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Hisham Ashkar
Global trends in the state of the world marine fish stock, 1974-2011
The increased use of resources and ocean space are adversely affecting the state of the ocean. On all measures the ocean is changing – the waters are warming and becoming dangerously more acidic, commercial fish species ...
15 Aug 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Most common and visible litter items in beaches
Based on the items most often collected on beaches, it is commonly claimed that the majority (80 per cent) of marine litter is linked to land-based sources. The top ten most collected items are remnants of consumer produ...
26 Aug 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plasticized animal species - Entangled
Entanglement in debris is a more obvious and proven risk to marine life than other impacts of litter, which are still subject to debate. More than 30,000 cases of entanglement (in 243 species) have been reported (G...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plasticized animal species - Ingestion
Apart from the physical risk from plastic, there is also concern that marine organisms are at risk from the ingestion of hazardous chemicals that are in the plastic or adsorbed on its surface. The ability of plastic part...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Are most of the plastics produced still around?
Marine litter (or debris) is waste created by humans that has been discharged into the coastal or marine environment. It is defined as “any anthropogenic, manufactured, or processed solid material (regardless of size) di...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Marine plastic garbage clean up efforts
The costs of action will vary depending on where in the value chain and on what waste the measures are focused, which sectors and products they target, and the location and scale of the marine litter being addressed. Whi...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Preventing is better than cleaning up
Avoiding environmental pollution is a better and cheaper option than cleaning up or mitigating the impact of pollution. There are many ways to tackle the problem of marine plastic debris and microplastics – from preven...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
What countries are doing to combat litter What countries are doing to combat litter
Thorough implementation of existing legislation and policies on the release of litter, on land and at sea, helps to reduce marine debris at the source. There is already a wealth of environmental regulatory instruments ad...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Regional action plans on marine litter Regional action plans on marine litter
The Regional Seas Conventions and Action Plans are instrumental in supporting the implementation of the GPA at regional levels and have developed, or are in the process of developing, regional sea action plans on marine ...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Marine plastics global policy timeline
Due to the varied sources, pathways and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment, there is a myriad of environmental regulations which have a bearing on how to address this problem. These range from gl...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Natural processes aecting the distribution and fate of plastics
In addition to physical redistribution linked to wind, waves, and surface and deep currents, a whole other suite of biological and mechanical processes influences the distribution of plastic debris and microplastics in...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Thermohaline circulation Thermohaline circulation
Plastic debris does not remain on the surface forever. Eventually it starts to sink. Cold, dense water sinks in the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean, driving what is often referred to as the ocean conveyor belt or t...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plastic currents
Discarded plastic moving around the ocean – on the surface, in the water column and on the sea floor – sometimes comes to rest. The geographical distribution of marine plastic debris is strongly influenced by the entry p...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
How much plastic is estimated to be in the oceans and where it may be
Debris reaching the marine environment accumulates in different “storage compartments,” including coastal beaches, mangroves, wetlands and deltas, the water column and the sea floor. In the water column, debris can b...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plastic input into the oceans
Despite knowledge of the role played by rivers, there are no global estimates of the amount of man-made debris reaching the ocean at river mouths. Therefore, of the estimated 4.8 to 12.7 million tonnes of litter which en...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plastic input from municipal solid waste and wastewater
Debris released by human activity on land can be washed by surface runoff or blown by wind into rivers and other watercourses and ultimately be transported into the ocean. Debris can also be directly dumped or dischar...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Pathways and uxes of plastics into the oceans
All material that erodes and washes off the land will end up in the marine environment. This includes solid materials that constitute marine litter. Understanding the role and importance of the different pathways is cruc...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
How microplastics are generated
Due to its size and variety of sources, the characterization of microplastic is even more complex than for large plastic debris. There are two types of microplastics particles: those which have been intentionally made (p...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
An example of how microplastics could end up on a consumer's plate
The ingestion of marine debris carrying these concentrated toxins has potential to bioaccumulate up the food chain and enter the human diet. However, although there is evidence of the harmful impacts of these chemicals o...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
The impact of plastic pollution on oceans is at least $8 bn per year
Marine plastic debris and microplastics have substantial negative effects on marine ecosystems. This in turn affects ecosystem services, the economic activities relying on those services for revenue generation, sustainab...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plastic bioaccumulation in the food web
Plastic debris can have similar size characteristics to sediment and suspended particulate matter and can be ingested by filter feeding or sediment ingesting organisms. Lugworms, amphipods and barnacles have all been s...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
How plastics enter the food web How plastics enter the food web
There has been widespread publicity about pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris and its impact on organisms. Images of the brightly coloured plastic stomach contents of dead seabirds and countless whale...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
How much plastic waste is produced worldwide
Today´s deterioration of the global environment is closely linked to unsustainable patterns of consumption and production. The exponential increase in production and consumption over the last 50 years has seen a rapid tr...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
How plastic moves from the economy to the environment
Marine plastic litter, like other waste or pollution problems, is really linked to market failure. In simple terms, the price of plastic products does not reflect the true cost of disposal. The cost of recycling an...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Global plastic production and future trends
Plastic packaging is considered one of the main sources of waste. In Europe, plastic production comes in three broad categories: about 40 per cent for single-use disposable applications, such as food packaging, agricult...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plastic waste produced and mismanaged
The rapid rise in the use of oil and gas during the last half century has been accompanied by the development of a range of petroleum products, some of which, like petrochemicals, have other important applications beyond...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Which plastics oat and which sink in seawater?
There has recently been a noticeable increase in concern about the implications of pollution by small sized debris, especially where made up of plastic. The term “microplastic” has been introduced to describe small plast...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Size does matter
Marine litter comes in all sizes. Large objects may be tens of metres in length, such as pieces of wrecked vessels, lost
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Mostly plastic
Between 60 and 90 per cent – sometimes as much as 100 per cent – of the litter that accumulates on shorelines, the sea surface and the sea floor is made up of one or a combination of different plastic polymers. The mos...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Plastic debris in the ocean: a multiplicity of sources and pathways
One of the major challenges to addressing the increasing amounts of litter accumulating in the marine environment is the fact that its sources are multiple and widespread. There are three main human activities leading to...
07 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Maphoto/Riccardo Pravettoni
Number of motile species
Number of motile species observed at different depths in the Gulf of Mexico.
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Number of sessile species
Number of sessile or relatively sessile species observed at different depths in the Gulf of Mexico. The vertical axis is a log scale for depth, and the biologically important zones that we wished to investigate are noted...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygeen
Distribution of shallow, mesophotic and deep fish species
Proportion of shallow species vs. mesophotic specialist and deep species per depth, along a gradient from 20–70 m in Puerto Rico (Bejarano et al. 2014).
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kritina Thygesen
Mesophotic sh species (50-120 m) from Fiji
Total numbers of fish species within each family collected at depths of 50–120 m in Fiji, showing proportional numbers of new species and unidentified species (more than half of which are likely new species). All but Tra...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) established under rising sea levels
All MCE habitats were established under rising global sea levels after the last ice age (Figure 2.12). Sea level was 120 m below its present position at around 18,000 years before present (BP) when Pleistocene reefs ...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Eect of morphology on light harvesting
The absorption of light is influenced by the micromorphology of coral and algal skeletons.
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Deepest observations of zooxanthellate scleractinian coral
The depth range of zooxanthellate mesophotic scleractinian corals is location-dependent due to differences in light penetration and other abiotic factors.
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Reef environment and light reaching the mesophotic zone
Conceptual model of light penetration in the ocean. Blue light dominates the photic zone below 30 m, but the actual depth of light penetration is site-specific and dependent on a variety of physical factors, such as su...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Current extent of MCE studies
Extent of MCE investigations to date (adapted from Richard Pyle unpublished data). At least 80 countries (those with documented shallow reefs; Spalding et al. 2001) have potential MCEs. Countries that do not have surfa...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kritina Thygesen
The mesophotic coral ecosystem
MCEs can form on high-angle continental and insular slopes as illustrated here, or on low-angle outer insular shelves and on the tops of submerged banks. Decreased light penetration rather than reduced temperature appe...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Interconnection between land and shallow-water and mesophotic reefs
Impacts of human and natural disturbances tend to decrease with depth and distance from the coast, making shallow reefs generally more vulnerable than MCEs.
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Ecosystem services of mesophotic coral ecosystems
Ecosystem services are benefits provided to human societies by ecosystems — services such as regulating climate and weather, maintaining biodiversity and providing food and essential habitat (Costanza et al. 1997). As ex...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Species restricted to the mesophotic zone in the Gulf of Mexico
Percentage of observed mesophotic species that occur only in mesophotic zones at either 30–100 m or 30–150 m.
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Mesophotic coral ecosystem case studies
MCEs are found worldwide in tropical and subtropical waters. The existence of corals at mesophotic depths has been known since at least 1889, when Darwin reported the discovery of corals at depths of 128 m (Darwin ...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Rank of top four sh in four depth zones
Rank of top four fish species occurring at mesophotic depths off La Parguera, Puerto Rico.
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygeen
Data summary for scleractinian corals at Eilat reef
Table 1. Data summary for scleractinian coral cover (per cent) at Eilat IUI reef, mean Shannon-Wiener index of diversity (H’), mean number of species per quadrat (#), and total number of species of all corals observed al...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Mesophotic sh species (50-150 m) from Cook Islands, Palau and Papua New Guinea
Total numbers of fish species within each family collected at depths of 50–150 m in the Cook Islands, Palau and Papua New Guinea, showing proportional numbers of new species. All but Symphysanodontidae (one specimen) are...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Western Atlantic mesophotic scleractinian species
Relationship between the number of scleractinian coral species with and without zooxanthellae from shallow reefs to 150 m in the western Atlantic (Weil unpublished).
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Contribution of macroalgae - to mesophotic coral ecosystems
Macroalgae are important, if not essential, components of coral reef communities (Figure 4.2). While substantially less information is available on deep-water macroalgae than on their shallow-water counterparts, informat...
26 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Evolution of world’s capture of marine species
Growing population means increased human activity and a greater use of the ocean every year (e.g. increases in fishing, ship transport, marine based tourism, exploitation of non-living resources, etc.). Human activities ...
06 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Total size of the world´s fl
Our growing population means increased human activity and a greater use of the ocean every year (e.g. increases in fishing, ship transport, marine based tourism, exploitation of non-living resources, etc.). Human activit...
06 Jul 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Population of Coastal Cities
The population of coastal cities continues to expand.
12 Aug 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Levi Westerveld
Land based and marine industry sources of pollution
Illustration of selected pressures and impacts with regard to pollution (Ref. WOA Summary, pages 26 to 29). Multiple pressures interact cumulatively in ways that are poorly understood but that can amplify the effec...
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
The levels of DPSIR framework
The DPSIR framework (Driving Forces-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responses) is used to assess and manage environmental problems. Driving forces are the socio-economic and socio-cultural forces driving human activities, which ...
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
The drivers
Human activity is causing widespread changes to the oceans’ physical, chemical and biological systems. The major driving forces of change in the ocean are to be found outside the marine environment. Just as most of the...
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Ocean water per person
If we divide up the ocean among the current 7 billion human inhabitants of Earth, we each have only one fifth of a cubic kilometer of ocean. That relatively small amount of water generates half the oxygen we breathe in a...
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Global marine protected areas
NOTE: A dispute exists between the Governments of Argentina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning sovereignty over the Falkland (Malvinas), South Georgia (Georgias del Sur) and South San...
29 Sep 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Levi Westerveld
The growth in cruise passengers worldwide, 1990-2015
Our growing population means increased human activity and a greater use of the ocean every year (e.g. increases in fishing, ship transport, marine based tourism, exploitation of non-living resources, etc.). Human activit...
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Knowledge gaps in understanding the ocean
The information that we need to understand the ocean can be divided into four main categories: (a) the morphology of the seafloor; (b) the composition and circulation of ocean water; (c) the biota of the ocean; and (d) t...
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
The ten themes addressed in the World Ocean Assessment
In order to organize the complex task of assessing the environmental, social and economic aspects of the ocean, the WOA is divided into 10 themes (Ref: WOA Summary, pages 7 to 10 providing overview of themes).
13 May 2016 - by GRID-Arendal/Kristina Thygesen
Hydropower lights up the Tropical Andes
As we have seen, climate change will have a significant impact on water flow, thus affecting hydropower generation, which generates the majority of power in the region. In South America as a whole, hydropower generates a...
27 Jun 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Riccardo Pravettoni
Climate and hydrological disasters in the Tropical Andes countries
The Andes are characterized by significant risk for extreme events. Some are climate driven, such as wildfires, mudslides and avalanches, while others are not, such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. However, climate...
27 Jun 2016 - by GRID-Arendal and Cartografare il Presente/Riccardo Pravettoni