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Penetration of Heat Into Marine Sediments
The left panel shows the increase in temperature with depth for sediments, located at 1000 metres water depth, that are exposed to linear bottom-water warming of 1 °C per 1000 years. Only the deepest gas hydrates dissoci...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Penetration of Heat Into Permafrost-Bearing Sediment
Thawing permafrost acts as a thermal buffer, slowing the diffusion of heat into sediment. Once dissociated, however, gas released at the top of the hydrate stability zone can migrate through the sediment without reenter...
04 Sep 2015 - by A. Taylor, Geological Survey of Canada
Schematic of a Submarine Slide Triggered by Gas Hydrate Dissociation
In theory, gas pressure generated by methane released during gas hydrate dissociation weakens the sediment and provides a glide plane for sediment failure. In practice, gas hydrates are rarely located at sites where slid...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS).
The ESAS makes up a quarter of the Arctic shelf area (Shakhova et al. 2010a), with an average depth of only 58 metres (Jakobsson 2002) and significant riverine input.
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Sedimentary Layers and Gas Migration Pathways
In this conceptual model, gas cannot easily reach the sediment surface of the continental slope without being transformed to gas hydrates or diverted upslope by impermeable hydrate-bearing sediment or glacial debris flow...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Evolution of a Pingo-Like Feature (PLF)
As the subsurface warms, the top of the gas hydrate stability zone moves downward (yellow arrows in the left panel). Warming results in gas hydrate dissociation in a gradually thickening zone (brown), releasing gaseous ...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Effect of Arctic Bottom-Water Warming on Gas Hydrate Stability
Left: Changes in the thickness of the GHSZ caused by the bottom-water temperature increase depicted in Figure 3.5. Above left: Volumetric GHSZ thickness changes north of 60°N as a function of time, given in absolute numb...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Annual Temperature Increase for 2001-2005 Relative to 1951-1980
Sea-surface and land-surface temperature changes. Change in ocean sea-surface temperature and temperature over land from 2001 to 2005, relative to the 1951-1980 mean (Hansen et al. 2006). The Arctic is experiencing some ...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
A Gas Hydrate Prospect Delineated on the Alaska North Slope.
The image shows geophysically-inferred gas hydrate trapped within a sand layer at the intersection of two fault planes (green).
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Resource Pyramid for Gas Hydrates
The total in-place natural gas resources represented globally by methane hydrates are enormous, but they occur in a wide range of accumulation types. As with other petroleum resources, the accumulation types most favorab...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Gas Hydrates Resource Potential by Global Regions
This figure includes only that subset of global in-place gas hydrates that appear to occur at high concentrations in sand-rich reservoirs, the most likely candidates for development.
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
General Schematic Showing Typical Modes of Gas Hydrate Occurrence Relative to the Geologic Environment
Thin (A) and thickly veined (B) sediment-displacing gas hydrates (white) in fine-grained sediment (grey); (C) pore-filling gas hydrates in sand; (D) gas hydrate mounds on the sea floor (hydrate has an orange coating from...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Hydrogen to Carbon Ratio of Global Primary Energy, 1860- 2009.
The ratio is expressed in fractional shares of hydrogen and carbon in average primary energy consumed.
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Gas Hydrate Production Methods
For each of the three proposed gas hydrate production methods (left frame), conditions within initially stable hydrate-bearing sediment are shifted such that hydrate at that location is no longer stable, and will begin d...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Host Sediment Control of Gas Hydrate Occurrence Form
Gas hydrates are primarily found in unconsolidated sands (upper row) or clays (centre row). Hydrates also commonly occur in thin, hydrate-bearing sand layers separated by fine-grained sediment (upper right), and can even...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
First Order Reservoir Simulation Modeling
Figure to assess the response of a gas hydrate reservoir to depressurization-based production. Frame A shows gas and water production rates, frame B shows reservoir pressure and temperature evolution, frame C shows grou...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Well Completion for Gas Hydrate Production
Well schematics show possible horizontal and vertical well completions for a gas hydrate production well employing the depressurization technique.
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Gas Hydrade Drilling and Production Problems
The figure shows typical gas-hydrate-related drilling and production problems encountered during drilling programs in the Arctic (from Collett and Dallimore 2002). Gas release scenario (left): over-pressured free gas is ...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Stability Conditions for Gas Hydrates
Idealized phase diagrams illustrating where methane hydrate is stable in marine and permafrost settings. Hydrate can exist at depths where the temperature (blue curve) is less than the maximum stability temperature for g...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Global Primary Energy Consumption and Global CO2 Emission
The figure on the left shows historical consumption from 1900 to 2009 and the GEA scenario’s projections for the period 2010 to 2050. The figure on the right shows global carbon dioxide emissions, both historical since 1...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Share in Total Primary Energy
Expressed in fractional market shares.
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Selected Gas Hydrate Study Areas
The yellow squares indicate a few of the historically-significant gas hydrate research sites, along with locations where gas hydrates have been recovered from depths greater than 50 meters beneath the sediment surface. R...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Gas Hydrate Landmark Findings
Timeline of major milestones in gas hydrate (GH) research.
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Methane-rich Plumes in Water Column on the West Svalbard Continental Margin
A: Location of survey area west of Svalbard; bathymetry (Jakobsson et al. 2008). B: Positions of acoustically imaged plumes are depicted by “pins” superimposed on a perspective view of the bathymetry of part of the area ...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Future Change in Bottom-Water Temperatures at the Sea Floor
Changes are given in °C per 100 years as predicted by the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) (Park et al. 2009), for a pCO2 increase scenario (1 per cent increase until current-day values are doubled). Values are an ensemble avera...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Arctic Surface Air-Temperature Change
Change is measured relative to measurements from 1901 to 1950 (black curve). Orange region is the 2001-2100 prediction given the A1B scenario (pCO2 increase to 700 ppm by 2100). Bars to the right indicate the predictions...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Predicted Increase in Global Mean Surface-Air Temperatures
Increases are relative to 1980–1999 for different emission scenarios (IPCC 2007). The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (pCO2) is assumed to attain a value of 800 to 1 000 parts per million (ppm) at th...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Methane Release From Sediment
This schematic cross-section of a high-latitude ocean margin, broken into five distinct zones, contains four potential methane sources. Methane is released from sediment along much of the cross-section, but over the next...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Chemosynthetic Habitats
Chemosynthetic habitats generated by different fluid flow rates, including transport of methane, as well as the sulphide resulting from anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), are colonized by different fauna. Left: free-l...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Morphology of a Tube Worm
Tube worms host their symbionts in the trophosome, a specialized organ. Oxygen (O2), sulphide (HS–), and carbon dioxide (CO2) are taken up from the surrounding water through the animal’s plume and delivered via the blood...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Methane Consumption in the Environment
Near sea-floor methane hydrate is being continuously broken down, releasing methane dissolved in pore water. As methane moves through sediment into the water column and atmosphere, it is consumed in a variety of chemical...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Primary Sources of Methane Release
Methane emissions due to human-related activities, shown to the right of the volcano, account for approximately 70 per cent of the total emissions (Reeburgh 2007; Colwell and Ussler III 2010). Gas Hydrates are currently ...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Global Carbon Cycle
Carbon moves through the atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere.Gas hydrates (orange) are shown in marine sediments, but are also buried beneath permafrost sediment in Arctic regions. Although gas hydrates are...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Carbon Mass in Gas-Hydrate-Bound Methane Compared to Other Sources of Organic Carbon
A 2008 workshop estimated the global methane content in gas hydrates to range from 1 000 to 10 000 gigatonnes of carbon (GtC) (Krey et al. 2009). Taking a midrange value of 5 000 GtC as an example, gas hydrates would ac...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Estimates of the Methane Held in Hydrates Worldwide
Early estimates for marine hydrates (encompassed by the green region), made before hydrate had been recovered in the marine environment, are high because they assume gas hydrates exist in essentially all the world’s ocea...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Fate of Buried Organic Matter
Buried organic material is degraded by microbes, thermogenically altered by heat and pressure, or buried more deeply and lost to the surface carbon cycle. Methane produced during microbial (also called “biogenic”) and th...
04 Sep 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Deaths Caused by Household Air Pollution, by Region 2012.
Of the 4.3 million deaths attributable to HAP, almost all are in low and middle-income countries.
27 Aug 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Population Increase Effects on the Environment
As the population in some parts of the world increases, so does the use of inefficient fuels for cooking and lighting. This creates household air pollution that threatens the lives and health of millions. It also contrib...
27 Aug 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Population Using Solid Fuels (%), 2012
The use of solid fuels for cooking and heating continues in developed countries but is concentrated in the developing world, primarily in Africa and South Asia. These fuels are often the main source of household energy i...
27 Aug 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
PM2.5 and PM10 Size
PM2.5 and PM10 are both much small than the diameter of a human hair. Both are dangerous to inhale. PM2.5 is of most concern given its ability to penetrate deep into the human lungs and bloodstreams and is dangerous in a...
27 Aug 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
PM2.5 Emissions from Energy Production, Manufacturing and Fuel Production, 2005
Small particles contribute to ambient air pollution (smog). The biggest contributor to PM2.5 emissions in areas like North America, Europe and China is the burning of coal.
27 Aug 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Household Air Pollution
Nearly 3 billion people continue to rely on biomass for cooking. This exposes them to a number of dangerous pollutants that have been linked to lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer ...
27 Aug 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Household Air Pollution Deaths, 2012
Causes of death attributed to household air pollution (HAP) in 2012.
27 Aug 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
HAP Burden of Deaths, 2012
While women tend to be more exposed to household air pollution than men because they are much more involved in daily cooking activities, the absolute burden is larger in men because they are more affected by other diseas...
27 Aug 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Global Trade in Used Tires, 2013
The global trade in used tires is quite extensive. Part of the flow is legal trade, and part of it is illegal. The IMPEL research uncovered 25 illegal shipments of tires from European ports in 2012-2013. As is the case w...
09 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
United Kingdom E-waste Production and Shipping
In England, the first case where anyone was sentenced to jail for illegal export of e-waste was concluded in May 2014. A licensed waste processor was jailed for 16 months by a court in the UK for illegally exporting 46 t...
10 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Shipbreaking in 2014
Shipbreaking – the dismantling of end-of-life vessels for the recovery of steel and other materials – takes place mainly within five countries: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, and Turkey. India and Bangladesh dismant...
04 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
2006 Côte d'Ivoire Toxic Waste Dump
The August 2006 case of illegal dumping of hazardous waste in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, from the tanker Probo Koala brought to international attention the complex problems associated with transboundary movements of hazardo...
09 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
The Legal-Illegal Interface in E-Waste Collection & Transport
Illegal waste recycling poses a challenge to the legal waste business. The informal players in the e-waste business fall into several categories. Some are the so-called “waste tourists” who buy second-hand electronics an...
04 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
Substances Contained in Mobile Phones
25 tonnes of mobile phones can yield 10 kg of gold. But electronic goods also contain a wide variety of hazardous substances. For example, printed circuit boards contain arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and bromides.
09 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
IMPEL-TFS Enforcement Actions III
The European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law (IMPEL) has been running waste shipment inspection projects within the European region since 2003. The current project, Enforcement A...
04 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
Global Illegal Waste Traffic
Over the last few decades, cross-continent transport has increased markedly in volume with new intermodal haulage methods, such as containerization (the transport of containers using multiple transport modes, such as rai...
09 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
EU Countries Hazardous Waste Generation & Shipments
Illegal shipments of hazardous waste are increasing between northwest and northeast Europe, and waste is also shipped from south to southeast Europe and the Balkans (Romania, Hungary, and Albania).
09 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
High Profit, Low Risk
The main drivers of the trade in hazardous waste appear to be the high costs of proper treatment and the opportunities for illegal actors to operate in a market with relatively low risks and high financial benefit. In ad...
10 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
The Internet Market for Used Electronic Items in China
The Internet is becoming increasingly important in the e-waste sector. Both companies and individuals offer second-hand electronics for sale and sometimes even for free. Scrap metal dealers (operating both physically an...
09 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Basel Convention, Ban Amendment, and OECD/EU Members, as of December 2014
The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention) is the major international agreement that regulates the transboundary movement and disposal of haza...
09 Jun 2015 - by Hisham H. Ashkar, GRID-Arendal
New E-waste Trafficking Routes in Southeast Asia
Stringent enforcement in one country commonly leads to changes in traditional illegal shipment routes through neighbouring countries. Strong enforcement practices, such as China’s Green Fence campaign, have been changin...
09 Jun 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Stretching the ecosystems beyond their limits
Ecological Footprints tell the extent to which people use what the biosphere provides. The Footprint methodology can therefore also measure the environmental demands of food production and show to what extent food produc...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Will there be enough food for 9.6 billion people?
About 200 000 to 230 000 people are added to the world food demand daily, and the UN estimates that by 2050 the world population will reach 9.6 billion (UN DESA 2013). Developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Afri...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Diet composition
As a result of population growth and changing consumption patterns, the demand for food and production of food is increasing. Cereals such as wheat, rice and maize provide about two-thirds of all energy in human diets (C...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Restoring ecosystems could feed 740 million people
There are great potentials in restoring degraded land. Globally there are over 560 million hectares of degraded agricultural land (Oldeman 1992) that could be restored through sustainable agricultural practices and green...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Footprint and population are growing faster than the Earth’s biocapacity
Ecological Footprint accounting quantifies both the annual availability of biocapacity and human demand on that capacity (Wackernagel et al. 2002; Borucke et al. 2013). Since 1961, the total Footprint has increased by 15...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
How food is lost and wasted
Globally, one-third of all food produced is either lost or wasted. There is a clear variation between developing and developed countries with regards to food loss and waste. In developing countries, food loss is the gr...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Food loss and waste by region
Ensuring food security for a growing global population is not only about producing more food, but also about reducing the enormous amount of food that is either lost or wasted. Globally, one-third of all food produced is...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Global food loss and waste
Ensuring food security for a growing global population is not only about producing more food, but also about reducing the enormous amount of food that is either lost or wasted. Globally, one-third of all food produced is...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Land types needed for food production
The average “foodprint” today is at least 0.66 global hectares per person, which corresponds to more than one-third of the Earth’s biocapacity, or about one-fourth of humanity’s Ecological Footprint (calculations based o...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Fisheries production, utilization and supply
In 2009, 145 million tonnes of fish were caught or farmed through aquaculture globally, of which about 122 million tonnes were used as food for people (FAO 2012d). In 2010, the estimated annual per capita fish consumptio...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Cereal production increase
An estimated 37.6 per cent of the world’s total land area is used for agriculture (FAO 2013a), and this ratio continues to expand. The past 50 years have seen global crop production expand threefold, with cereal producti...
06 Mar 2015 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
Wood and wood products from tropical countries to Europe and the United States
EU imports 133–385 million cubic meters RWE of wood products. The US imports about 72 million. About 59 per cent of the imports to the EU and the US are paper and pulp. The wood used to produce paper and pulp is often mo...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Illegal Logging and log laundering
Mixing of legal with illegal wood, including in pulp, chips and paper is the far most common way to hide the imports of illegally procured timber.
01 Dec 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Rhino, and other wildlife, smuggling routes to and from Nepal
Rhinos were hunted intensively during the war in Nepal in the early to mid 2000s, with catastrophic effects to habitats such as Bardia National park.
15 Dec 2014 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
The bushmeat chain reaction
The illicit bushmeat trade involves a series of underlying socio-economic factors, but leads, with rising population densities, to local depletions of wildlife species, and increasingly inside protected areas.
03 Dec 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Taxation system in eastern DR Congo conflict zone - CNDP taxation on local resources
Militias, as here from DRC, put considerable emphasis upon controlling entrance roads to cities and the road network, as well as ports, in order to tax any good passing. Here, charcoal, being the primary energy supply to...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Saiga antelope populations
Saigas have been hunted since prehistoric times and today poaching remains the primary threat to this critically endangered species. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Saiga populations crashed by more than 95% ...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Illegal wildlife trafficking affects species population
The illegal trade in wildlife excluding timber and fisheries has been estimated by different sources to be worth 7–23 billion dollars annually, involving a wide range of species including insects, reptiles, amphibians, f...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Illegal logging methods
The illegal trade in flora, such as illegal logging, has been estimate to represent a value of 30-100 billion USD annually. An estimated 50-90% of the wood in some tropical countries is suspected to come from illegal sou...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Illegal logging and the Congo conflict
Illegal logging directly fuels many conflicts, as timber is a resource available for conflict profiteers or to finance arms sales. Without public order, militants, guerrillas or military units impose taxes on logging com...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Illegal charcoal trade in eastern DR Congo
The illicit charcoal trade in eastern DRC, but also into Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania, is a significant income to criminals and militias. Militias in DRC are estimated to make 14–50 million USD annually on road taxes (2...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Forests and conflicts
Around the world, conflicts and wars are taking a toll on forests and on the communities that rely on them for their livelihood. Dense forests can serve as hideouts for insurgent groups or can be a vital source of reve...
18 Dec 2014 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, GRID Arendal
Major environmental crimes
The economic scale of environmental crime is substantial - especially on illegal logging and fisheries - and probably just as large as or well exceed global ODA (Official Development Assistance) of around USD 135 billi...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Environmental crime network
The opportunities ecosystems provide for future development are threatened by serious and increasingly sophisticated transnational organized environmental crime. This includes illegal logging, poaching and trafficking of...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
The charcoal supply chain
With current urbanization trends, households are switching from wood fuel to the affordable, convenient and readily accessible charcoal. Wood fuel and charcoal account for up to 90% of the household energy consumption in...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Charcoal business in Virunga area
The multitude of military groups operating in this region makes Virunga one of the most dangerous parks in the DRC. The charcoal trade is one of many lucrative illicit trades in the park, which also include timber ...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
The illegal charcoal trade controlled by Al Shabaab
Al Shabaab’s main income appears to be from charcoal, and taxing of other commodities, as well as possibly ex-pat finance. At a single roadblock they have been able to make up to USD 8–18 million per year for taxing pass...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Sturgeon catch in the Caspian Sea and caviar imports
The sturgeon – sought for its caviar – has declined dramatically in what is now a heavily illegal trade. To reduce the illicit trade in any wildlife, responses must include front line protection, customs control, investi...
18 Dec 2014 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, GRID Arendal
Brazilian Amazone: Law enforcement operations cause 76% reduction in deforestation
Brazil managed to reduce deforestation in the country primarily through a targeted and strict enforcement effort using satellite images to detect recent logging, followed by direct action by SWAT teams and investigators ...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Sub-Saharan Africa conflicts and the elephant range
Approximately 19,000 elephants are located within or very near conflict zones in countries with civil wars or significant unrest and armed non-state groups. Up to a maximum 15% of elephant populations are killed annually...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Wood charcoal production in Africa
In Africa 90% of wood consumed is estimated used for woodfuel and charcoal (East Africa 94%, North Africa 96%, Central Africa 87%, South Africa 49%, West Africa 92%). Africa has an official charcoal production of 30.6 mi...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
Population growth in Sub-Saharan and Central Africa
Current population projections by UN’s Population Division suggest an increase from ca. 0.9 billion today to 2.1 billion people by 2050 in Sub-Saharan Africa. The UN further estimates the urbanization in Sub-Saharan Afri...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
The Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants
The CCAC is a partnership of governments, intergovernmental organisations, representatives of the private sector, the environmental community, and other members of civil society. It is a unique initiative to support fast...
22 May 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
The Himalayas - SLCPs in High Elevation Regions
SLCPs, especially BC and co-pollutants, are major contributors to the South Asian atmospheric brown cloud, with important consequences for monsoon rainfall and glacier retreat. Fast action on SLCPs could help slow the ra...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Cryosphere: Zoom in on the Arctic
The Arctic is currently warming two to three times faster than the global average and is expected to warm more than any other region on Earth. SLCPs contribute to increased melting in the Arctic, and BC deposited on snow...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Benefits of SLCP controle measures for Agriculture
Implementation of the 16 control measures specified in the Time to Act publication is expected to have significant benefits for agriculture worldwide. Rapid reduction of methane and sot has the potential to avoid an annu...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Effects on Agriculture - SLCPs, a Threat to Agricultural Productivity
SLCPs, especially tropospheric O3, detrimentally impact ecosystems including crop yields, and are affecting food security. Present day global relative yield losses due to tropospheric O3 exposure has been estimated for f...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Benefits of SLCP controle measures for Public Health
Implementation of the 16 SLCP control measures as presented in the Time to Act publication is expected to yield a substantial benefit for public health saving approximately 2.4(0.7-4.6) million outdoor air pollution rela...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Effects on Public Health - Air Pollution, a Preventable Risk
SLCPs, particularly O3 and BC and co-pollutants, which are important parts of PM2.5 air pollution, are harmful to human health. Globally, PM2.5 is a major global cause of premature mortality. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 air...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
SLCPs and Sea-Level Rise
SLCP control measures could help reduce the rate of sea-level rise, one of the most concerning effects of climate change. An immediate implementation of control measures could reduce the rate of sea-level rise by about 2...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
Consequences of Delayed Mitigation
The delayed implementation of the SLCP control measures presented in the Time to Act publication could have negative consequences on temperature rise. Due to the relatively short lifetimes of SLCPs climate benefits could...
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal