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11-energy
28 Apr 2016 - by Tom Andre Skarning
10-disasters
28 Apr 2016 - by Tom Andre Skarning
09-vulnerability
28 Apr 2016 - by Tom Andre Skarning
08b-water-stress
28 Apr 2016 - by Tom Andre Skarning
07-climate-change-emb-v2
28 Apr 2016 - by Tom Andre Skarning
06-el-nino-v2
28 Apr 2016 - by Tom Andre Skarning
02-andes-ecoregions-res-v2
28 Apr 2016 - by Tom Andre Skarning
01-andes-physical-v3
28 Apr 2016 - by Tom Andre Skarning
00-hydro-sv
28 Apr 2016 - by Tom Andre Skarning
00-forests
28 Apr 2016 - by Tom Andre Skarning
00-andes-population
28 Apr 2016 - by Tom Andre Skarning
00-agriculture
28 Apr 2016 - by Tom Andre Skarning
Energy: Total Production
The main domestic sources of electricity generation in the region are lignite and hydropower. Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia and Kosovo depend mainly on lignite (coal)-fired thermal hydropower plants for e...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Landslides and mudflows in Georgia in 1995-2013
Large areas of the country are under threat from natural hazards. In Georgia, almost 70 per cent of the territory, home to some 57 per cent of the population, is at risk from disasters, including mudflows (32 per cent of...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Landslides and floods in Armenia in 2003-2014
Armenia’s main threats are from land- and mudslides, primarily on mountain slopes and hillsides. About one-fifth of all communities in Armenia have been affected by landslides. Areas with the highest risk of mudslides in...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yields in the 2040s under the Medium Impact Scenario, no adaptation and no irrigation water constraints
Water constraints are perceived as the most severe impact of climate change on the agricultural sector. Climate change will inevitably increase the number of areas needing irrigation, the water demand for crops, and ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yields in the 2040s in the South Caucasus
The changes in crop yields, however, vary between locations. For certain crops in the mountain regionsthe changes may, in some cases, be beneficial. When assessing the impact of changes in temperature and precipitation, ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Rate of population below the poverty line in Georgia by districts and big cities in 2014
In addition to having higher exposure to natural disasters, lower access to healthcare, poor household constructions and higher poverty rates make mountain communities even more vulnerable to such events (CENN and ITC 20...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Physical map of the South Caucasus
The impacts of climate change may have severe consequences for the people and environment of the mountainous areas of the South Caucasus. The characteristics of these areas, including high risk of natural disasters, low ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Irrigated zones and water shortage scenarios for 2040 in the South Caucasus
The capacity of farmers to adapt to the impacts of climate change is low due to poorly managed irrigation and drainage systems, limited financial resources restricting the use of new technologies, inadequate support from...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Illegal logging in Georgia in 2000-2013
In Georgia, over 60 per cent of its forests are situated on mountain slopes at an elevation of 1,000 m.a.s.l or higher (MoENRP 2015; MoENR 2010; Ulander and Ter-Zakaryn 2012). Forest ecosystems protect biodiversity, stor...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Illegal logging in Armenia in 2000-2013
The mountainous areas of the South Caucasus have a wide variety of climate zones, ranging from cold moderate alpine peaks to temperate, humid and arid landscapes.6 The variation in climate zones gives the region its uniq...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Climate-related diseases in the Caucasus in 1999-2013
Climate change directly impacts human health and security. Natural disasters have the most obvious and immediate impact on people’s health and security as they abruptly destroy property, livelihoods, infrastructure, can ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Potential hydroresource, Energy consumption and Power generation by HPP in the South Caucasus in 2013
Primary energy supplies in the three countries vary according to their access to fossil fuels and water resources.16 Georgia relies on imported gas and oil, but also have renewable energy such as hydropower for electrici...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Ecosystems of the South Caucasus
The mountainous areas of the South Caucasus have a wide variety of climate zones, ranging from cold moderate alpine peaks to temperate, humid and arid landscapes.6 The variation in climate zones gives the region its uniq...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
National Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments Availability by Sector/Country (2)
All the countries of the South Caucasus made a commitment to develop separate policy documents on climate change adaptation, either internationally or nationally. Such commitments derive not only from international oblig...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
References to climate change adaptation in development strategies (Only strategies in force are covered)
Almost none of the development strategies (such as sustainable development and/or poverty reduction strategies) of the South Caucasus countries have an all-inclusive and adequate appreciation of climate change. Furthermo...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Existence of Coordination Mechanisms on Climate Change (As described above)
Coordination mechanisms can be clustered in the following way: (a) intergovernmental councils (b) inter-ministerial/agency national councils, (c) government experts groups, (d) donor coordination mechanisms, (e) experts ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
National Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments Availability by Sector/Country (1)
All the countries of the South Caucasus made a commitment to develop separate policy documents on climate change adaptation, either internationally or nationally. Such commitments derive not only from international oblig...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Analysis of the institutional framework for climate change adaptation
The findings of the study in Chapter 2: Analysis of adaptation policies for vulnerable sectors be summarised as follows (see also table on the right): • None of the South Caucasus countries have specially designated l...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Overview of Presence of Climate Adaptation and Mountain Regions in Current Sectoral Strategies (Strategies under development or ones with expired term are not considered in the table)
The analysis of the sectoral policies of the three countries of the South Caucasus reveals that: • More recent policy documents are more comprehensive in their coverage of adaptation issues. For example, the National En...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
References to mountain regions and adaptation in development strategies (Only strategies in force are covered)
Almost none of the development strategies (such as sustainable development and/or poverty reduction strategies) of the South Caucasus countries have an all-inclusive and adequate appreciation of climate change. Furthermo...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Observed climate changes and scenarios for South Caucasus
Aremnia: The national trend of a warmer and drier climate that has been observed over the last 80 years is forecast to continue throughout the 21st century. Temperatures are predicted to increase 1.3–1.7°C by 2040, 2.6–...
30 Mar 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Energy
Emerging policies and actions aim to increase the efficiency of energy production and consumption, and to promote a transition to low or zero-carbon energy sources. These policies, which are clearly relevant to climate c...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Forestry and biodiversity
All countries are undergoing several important forest policy processes, such as developing national forest programmes, revising forest legislation, developing national action plans to combat illegal logging, forest certi...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Food
Agricultural legislation defines the basis for sustainable agriculture in all Western Balkan countries. However, so far this legislation has not integrated climate change adaptation, nor are mountain areas reflected. The...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Land
Even though the Western Balkan countries are facing serious land degradation threats and Albania has several laws focused on establishing the measures and structures for preventing land degradation),14 in general legisla...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Water
Water sector legislation is quite similar in all of the Western Balkan countries, with the exception of Croatia due to its direct implementation of the key EU directive. The water sector is regulated at the state level i...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Climate-related disasters
Climate-related natural disasters and extreme events, such as droughts, floods, and wildfires, also directly affect people’s health and well-being. Apart from the risk of being directly killed by floods, they (together w...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Tourism
The Western Balkans has vast potential for sustainable tourism due to its rich cultural heritage and diversity, attractive coastlines and historic cities, and some of Europe’s largest and wildest landscapes. Tourism is o...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Wind power potential
Renewable energy provides a significant share of the region’s energy and is higher than the EU-27 average (EEA, 2008). Almost all of the renewable energy comes from large hydropower plants; wind, solar and geothermal sou...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Geothermal energy potential
Renewable energy provides a significant share of the region’s energy and is higher than the EU-27 average (EEA, 2008). Almost all of the renewable energy comes from large hydropower plants; wind, solar and geothermal sou...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Solar electricity potential
Renewable energy provides a significant share of the region’s energy and is higher than the EU-27 average (EEA, 2008). Almost all of the renewable energy comes from large hydropower plants; wind, solar and geothermal sou...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Infrastructure
In the Western Balkans region, achieving efficient and modern internal transport networks and infrastructure and communication networks between the region’s countries will be a key enabler of economic growth and transiti...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Forest coverage per country
Forests occupy a large proportion of the land area in the Western Balkans – from 28 per cent in Albania up to 44.7 per cent in Kosovo1 (Tomter et al., 2013, World Bank, 2012) – and play a significant social and economic ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Forest fires
Climate change is also a very real risk for forests and their management. Forest fires are already a major hazard across the Balkans. A significant increase in the number and intensity of wildfires across the region has ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Protected areas
The number and size of protected areas in the region has been increasing, although the share of protected land is still low if compared with that of the EU. Some protected areas have been established recently or are in t...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Forests and protected areas
The mountain areas of Western Balkan countries are predominantly covered by forests very rich in biodiversity, both in terms of flora and fauna of either global or European conservation importance. There are vast areas o...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Water stress, uses and withdrawal
Presently the Western Balkan countries are some of the most water-rich in Europe with regards to the amount of water available per person (10,600 cubic metres, which is twice the European average) (World Bank, 2003). Mos...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Agriculture
Agriculture still plays an important role in the economies of the region and employment, despite its overall decline compared with industry and the services sector. Almost 50 per cent of land in the region is used for ag...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Projected decline in days with snow cover for the 2050s
Higher temperatures will also shift the snowline upwards. By 2050, a reduction of up to 20 days in snow cover is expected across the Balkans and up to 50 days in the Dinaric Arc (Schneider et al., 2013). More intense rai...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Heavy precipitation change: Projected changes from 1971-2100
Temperature: Predicting the climate in mountainous regions is particularly diffcult due to the complex topography. Mountains create diverse microclimates, which require high density of measurement. The distinct local di...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Projected extreme heatwaves: 2020-2052
The increased incidence and intensity of heatwaves are expected to shift temperature-related mortality from winter to summer, with fewer colder-related deaths and more heat-related ones. In the long-term, the net total n...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Trends in annual temperature & precipitation: 1960-2014
Temperature: Temperatures have risen in the region in the last fifty years, and every country in the region has experienced warming with this trend accelerating in the most recent decades (UNFCCC National Communications...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Energy: Total Final Consumption (TFC)
The energy sector is considered highly important for the economic growth of the Western Balkan countries, where there is large potential for the development of this sector to bring new investments to the region. A high d...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Transport, Infrastructure and Communication
Transportation, infrastructure and communication policies are key to economic growth and transition in the Western Balkans region. The transportation sector, in particular, has significant environmental implications; an ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Tourism
Albania, Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro have developed active tourism strategies, while Kosovo1 has a draft document. The previous tourism strategy for FYR Macedonia, valid until 2014, has not been updated, although the...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Socio-economic indicators
Today, the countries of the Western Balkans are at a turning point in the development of their economies, societies and environment. A number of social, economic and other drivers will shape the region’s future. Integrat...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
The Western Balkans region
The Western Balkans is a designation used (most commonly by the European Union) for a region which includes Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo. The region, consider...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Policy Evaluation Matrix: Human Health
The laws governing healthcare in the countries of the Western Balkans create the conditions to maintain and improve the health of their citizens. According to these laws, healthcare measures include prevention and protec...
09 Dec 2015 - by Levi Westerveld
Hindu Kush Himalayan region population and area
The population of the Hindu Kush Himalayan region is approximately 210 million. The communities are largely agrarian, relying heavily on local natural resources and subsistence farming on small plots of land. Like many a...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Extreme rainfall events – Salween and Mekong
Extreme rainfall is increasing in the southernmost part of the Mekong basin and southern and southwestern part of the Salween basin, while extremes are decreasing in most parts of the central and southern parts of the Me...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Salween-Mekong basins climate indicators – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: The Salween and Mekong river basins receive an average of 1,226 mm of rainfall per year. Out of the total precipitation, 17% and 69% are received during the pre-monsoon and monsoon season, respectively, whils...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
The Mekong and Salween river basins
Like the Salween and Yangtze rivers, the Mekong river arises in the Three Rivers Source Area high in the Tibetan plateau in Qinghai, China. The Sanjaingyuan National Nature Reserve was established to protect the headwate...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Upper Salween/Mekong basins future climate – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: Rainfall projections in summer show an increasing trend over both upper basins, with an increase of about 5–10% over the southern areas where the normal precipitation is low. In the upper part of these basins...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Contribution of snow and glacier melt to river flow: Selected upper river basins of the HICAP study, average 1998–2007
Precipitation falls as either snow or rain, depending on the temperature, which is closely linked to elevation. Snow can be stored as long-term (perennial) snow or become ice and contribute to the growth of glaciers. Sno...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Future contribution of snow and glacier melt to river flow: Projected total flow and average discharge by 2041–2050, RCP 8.5 dry-warm case
Depending on the stream flow composition (glacial melt, snow melt, rainfall, baseflow), different rivers within each of the basins will respond differently to climate change. Currently, the peak discharges within the upp...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Future contribution of snow and glacier melt to river flow: Projected total flow and average discharge by 2041–2050, RCP 4.5 cold-wet case
Depending on the stream flow composition (glacial melt, snow melt, rainfall, baseflow), different rivers within each of the basins will respond differently to climate change. Currently, the peak discharges within the upp...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
The future of climate and water in the HKH region
Temperatures in the upper Indus, upper Ganges, upper Brahmaputra, upper Salween and upper Mekong basins are projected to increase with considerable certainty between 1–2.2°C up until 2050, compared to the baseline period...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Changes in discharge for selected rivers in the HKH region
Shifts in the seasonality of flows can have major implications for regional food security, especially when the timing of peak flows and growing seasons do not coincide. However, this study suggests that significant seaso...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Two terrible earthquakes strike Nepal
The topography, terrain, physical features and changing climate of the Hindu Kush Himalayas also make this region inherently unstable and prone to hazards. These include earthquakes, landslides, floods, droughts and othe...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
How mountain glaciers gain and lose mass
Glaciers respond to climatic changes by gaining or losing mass in the form of snow and ice. Sustained climatic changes will eventually lead to glacier advance or retreat. Glaciers in the HKH region are losing mass and re...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Kailash Sacred Landscape
Spread over an area of about 31,000 km2 the Kailash Sacred Landscape is an ecologically diverse, multi-cultural and fragile landscape. It is located in the remote southwestern portion of the Tibet Autonomous Region of Ch...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Extreme rainfall events – Indus
Extreme rainfall events have increased in intensity over the main mountain range in the upper basin, especially in the eastern section, while the number of rainy days has decreased. In summary, this area now receives mor...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Indus basin climate indicators – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: Overall, the upper basin receives more precipitation than the lower basin and plays an important role in water availability in the whole basin throughout the year. Within the upper basin, the main mountain ran...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Indus basin future climate – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: Precipitation is projected to increase in summer over the northern, central-eastern and southern parts of the Indus basin, while over the central-western part of the basin it is projected to decrease. In the r...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
The Indus river basin
The Indus is the 12th largest river in the world and has its source at Lake Ngangla Rinco on the Tibetan plateau. The river basin contains seven of the world’s highest peaks in addition to Everest, including K2 (8,600 m)...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
The Hindu Kush Himalayan region
The Hindu Kush Himalayas (HKH) are the freshwater towers of South Asia and parts of Southeast Asia. Water originating from their snow, glaciers and rainfall feed the ten largest river systems in Asia. Together these rive...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
HKH climate indicators – Rainfall
The average annual rainfall over the HKH region (5 basins studied here) is approximately 880 mm, with variability of just 5% between years and high spatial variability. The highest rainfall amounts, accounting for more t...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Changing Glaciers in the Hindu Kush Himalayas
Glaciers are some of the most sensitive indicators of climate change, as they respond rapidly to changes in temperature and precipitation. Glaciers can provide local water resources in the mountains as well as influence ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
HICAP - Himalayan Climate Change Adaptation Programme
To help meet the challenges emerging in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region, a pioneering programme was created to address critical knowledge gaps on water, climate and hydrology, and thus better understand the future impact...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Projected glacial area change by 2050
There has been an almost worldwide recession of glaciers since the last ice age, including within the Himalayas. Most Himalayan glaciers have both retreated and lost mass since the mid-19th century, with some exceptions ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Extreme rainfall events – Ganges
There are changes in extreme rainfall events and the number of rainy days, but these changes vary across the basin, increasing in some locations and decreasing in others. Rainfall intensity shows a decreasing trend over ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Ganges basin future climate – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: In the summer, both scenarios project a 10–25% increase in rainfall over most of the basin, and exceeding 25% over the central north of the basin. RCP 8.5 results in projections with pockets of lower increase ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
The Ganges river basin
The Ganges is one of the three main river basins in the Hindu Kush Himalayas. Its source is high in the Himalayan mountains where the Bhagirathi river flows out of the Gangotri Glacier in India’s Uttarakhand state. It ta...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Ganges basin climate indicators – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: The Ganges basin receives nearly 1,000 mm of precipitation annually. The greatest amount of rain – 84% of the annual total – falls during the monsoon season. Of the remainder, 7% falls during the premonsoon se...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Asia, the region most hit by natural disasters in 2014
Asia is the most disaster-prone region in the world. In 2014, over 40% of the world’s natural disasters were reported in this region. It is also where most people have been killed, the greatest losses have been incurred,...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Extreme rainfall events – Brahmaputra
No specific trend of change in the amount of rainfall has been observed between the baseline period of 1951–1980 and 1981–2007. Extreme rainfall appears to be decreasing in the north, but increasing over eastern portions...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
The Brahmaputra river basin
Starting from an elevation of 5,300 m, the Brahmaputra river flows across southern Tibet, passing through the Himalayas, descending onto the Assam plain, and finally emptying into the Bay of Bengal. The river undergoes a...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Brahmaputra basin climate indicators – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: The Brahmaputra basin receives an average of just over 1,100 mm of rain annually. Of the annual total, 70% is received during the monsoon season (June– September) and 20% in the pre-monsoon season. Winter is t...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Water use: The case of the Brahmaputra river basin
The population of South Asia has tripled over the last 60 years and now accounts for around a quarter of the world’s population, with China alone accounting for around one-fifth.29 An estimated 210 million people living ...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Brahmaputra basin future climate – Rainfall & Temperature
Rainfall: Future scenarios project a 5–25% increase in summer rainfall over most of the basin up until 2050. According to the wettest scenario (RCP 8.5), the increase could be more than 25%, especially in the northern a...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Hydrological charateristics of the HKH region: Selected upper river basins of the HICAP study
The rivers flowing from the Hindu Kush Himalayas provide the region with one of the most valuable resources: fresh water. Ten large Asian river systems originate in the HKH – the Amu Darya, Brahmaputra (Yarlungtsanpo), G...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Population in the river basins of the Hindu Kush Himalayas
The economies of the HKH countries and the livelihoods of the majority of people within them are highly water dependent. Agriculture accounts for about 90% of all water withdrawals in HKH countries (higher than the world...
09 Dec 2015 - by Kaya Asdal
Tropical Forest in Latin America
The Amazon forest spans more than five million km2 and is by far the world’s largest rainforest area,1 representing some 55–60% of all rainforest. The well-known reduction of deforestation in Brazil since 2004 is globall...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Small Rainforest In a Big World
The science is clear about two things. First, climate change poses a significant threat to human well-being, with developing societies and poor households most vulnerable to harm. The effects of extreme weather events, r...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
Illegal Logging and Log Laundering
The majority of illegal logging takes place in the tropical forest of the Amazon, Central Africa and Southeast Asia. Recent studies reveal that illegal logging accounts for as much as 50–90% of the total production from ...
22 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal
What Threatens the Rainforest?
A recent analysis of ‘Intact Forest Landscapes’ (IFLs) by World resources Institute and others9 warned that pristine forests are being degraded at an alarming rate. Over 1 million km2, an area three times the size of Ger...
14 Dec 2015 - by GRID-Arendal